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Designing a Motion Control System

Agenda
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Elements of a motion control system Motion Control Software Motion Controllers Motor Drives Motors Feedback devices Example Application

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Motion Control System


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Motion control involves precise and repeatable control of movement by means of torque, speed and position control. There are three categories of motion controla. Point to Point Control(Indexing) b. Tension/Torque c. Speed

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Categories of Motion Control


a. Point to Point Control (Indexing)

b. Tension/Torque

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Categories of Motion Control


Speed Control

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Actuators
a. Linear Motion

a. Rotatory Motion

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Elements of a Motion System

Position App Software

Voltage

Current

Motion Controller

Amp/Drive

Motor

Mechanical

Feedback Device
Position Feedback

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Application Software

App Software

Motion Controller

Amp/Drive

Motor

Mechanical

Feedback Device

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Software Overview

Configuration

Prototype

Application Development Environment

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Motion Controllers

App Software

Motion Controller

Amp/Drive

Motor

Mechanical

Feedback Device

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Motion Controllers
A command Input device is a device that provides position, speed, and torque command to the servo amplifier to produce desired motion. A command Input device, therefore is a motion controller. There are three type of command input devices: PLC,PC and stand-alone

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Motion Controllers
Characteristics of a PLC as a Motion Controller: A PLC is designed for Industrial Environments. A PLC is designed to control any numbers of axes. A PLC can manage a lots of I/o. A PLC has a modular design, making for easy replacement. A PLC is easily reprogrammable.

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Motion Controllers
A command Input device is a device that provides position, speed, and torque command to the servo amplifier to produce desired motion. A command Input device, therefore is a motion controller. There are three type of command input devices: PLC,PC and stand-alone

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Motion Controllers
A command Input device is a device that provides position, speed, and torque command to the servo amplifier to produce desired motion. A command Input device, therefore is a motion controller. There are three type of command input devices: PLC,PC and stand-alone

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Purpose of the Motion Controller :


Calculate the trajectories for each commanded move on the board to prevent host computer interference Provide the torque commands to the motor drive or amplifier Monitor limits and emergency stops for supervisory control Close the PID loop

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A Motion controller can be either single or multi axis


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Features of a Simple Motion Trajectory


Target velocity

Velocity

Starting position

Time

Target position

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Typical Motion Profiles Options


Simple single axis point-to-point motion Requires an axis target position

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Typical Motion Profile Options : :


Vector point-to-point motion Requires X position and Y position

X Axis

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Typical Motion Profile Options : :


Blended motion Requires two vector moves and a blend factor

Blended Path Y Axis

Original Path X Axis


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Servo Amplifier/Drives

Servo Amplifier
An Amplifier consists of an electronics circuit that converts commercial AC power Supply into variable frequency AC power suitable for any specific motor

An Amplifier is comprised of a converter section, a smoothing circuit section, an inverter section, inverter section, and a control circuit section. A servo includes an encoder section.

Commercial AC power Supply

Converter

DC Bus

Inverter

Reference I/P

Control Circuit Section


Encoder Feedback

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Servo Amplifier

Commercial AC power Supply

Converter

DC Bus

Inverter

Command Unit

Position Control

Speed Control

Torque current control


Current Feedback

Encoder Feedback

A Servo has a encoder attached to the servo motor(SM), which sends feedback pulses to the position loop controller and the speed loop controller of the control circuit section.
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Servo Amplifier
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An Amplifier is comprised of : A converter section, that changes commercial AC into DC A Smoothing circuit section, which smoothes out ripples in the DC An Inverter section, which changes the DC into Variable Frequency AC, A Control circuit section, which controls the inverter section A servo Motor includes an encoder section.

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Encoders Feedback devices

Typical Industrial System

Input Controller

Operation (Application)

Output

Feedback
Sensor

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Encoders within a Control System

Feedback
Sensor

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Encoder Definitions

What is an encoder?
:
An encoder is a device which converts a mechanical information of a shaft or position into an electrical signal

Encoder

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Encoder Definitions

How is this accomplished?


:
As the code disc rotates, it shutters light from the LED and is received and transmitted as square\sine waveforms

Receiver / Sensor
Code disc Lens Transmitter / LED Shaft

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Encoder Selection Process

Type (Rotary, Linear, Incremental, Absolute) Electrical Interface Mechanical Considerations

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Encoder Selection Process

Type (Rotary, Linear, Incremental, Absolute)

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Types of Encoders

Encoder

Rotary Encoder

Linear Encoder

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Types of Encoders

Rotary
Convert Angular Position into Analog or Digital Signal Encoders for rotary motion and measuring angle, speed or velocity

Linear
Convert Linear distance movement to Analog or Digital Signal

Encoders for measuring distance travelled, positioning, location information.

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Types of Encoders

Encoder

Linear Encoder

Wire Draw

Linear with Scale

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Types of Encoders
Wiredraw
Convert pulled wire length distance to feedback With Scale

Absolute and Incremental


Analog, digital or Bus feedback interfaces Distance: up to 50m

Two part devices; Active Head, Passive Scale Absolute Positioning Scale : Magnetic Tape or Elements Hiperface, SSI, Bus Interfaces

Distance: up to 1700m

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Types of Encoders

Encoder

Rotary Encoder

Linear Encoder

Incremental

Absolute

Wire Draw

Linear with Scale

Incremental

Absolute

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Incremental Encoders

Incremental

Produces electrical pulses or increments with linear or rotary motion Signals can be square or sinusoidal waves Signals start over at power up, or after a power failure. In other words, an incremental encoder does not retain position after a power cycle Incremental encoders are typically used for speed or applications that do not require absolute position

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Absolute Encoders

Absolute

Code disc for absolute encoders

Provides a unique value for every shaft or linear position Absolute encoders retain their position after a power cycle Signals typically use SSI, parallel, or field bus interfaces (Ethernet/IP, EtherCAT, Profinet, Devicenet, CANopen, Profibus, etc) Absolute encoders are used in applications were position information is necessary

LED

Lens

Scanning mask Code disc PhotoElements

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Encoder Selection Process

Type (Rotary, Linear, Incremental, Absolute) Electrical Interface

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Types of Encoders

Encoder

Rotary Encoder

Incremental

Absolute

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Incremental Encoders
Output Channels

Incremental encoders
produce electrical pulses or increments (usually as a square wave) with linear or rotary motion of the encoder

Resolution
The number of pulses or increments per channel, per revolution. Also known as Pulses Per Revolution, or PPR

Quadrature:
The standard convention is to output two square wave channels along with their complements Channels A and B are offset by of a cycle using all four channels with this output, we can interpolate 4 positions within one pulse cycle. This is known as quadrature The 1/4th offset also allows us to see which direction the encoder is turning based on what channel is leading. If channel A goes high first followed by channel B, we can determine the direction of rotation, and visa versa.

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Incremental Encoders
Electrical Signals

Output Voltages
Standard output voltages are HTL, TTL or Open Collector. These refer to the amplitude of the square waves

HTL (High Threshold Logic)


Also known as push pull The output voltage will be the same as the supply voltage (e.g if the supply on the encoder is 24V, the output signal will also be ~24V)

TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic)


Also known as a differential line driver or RS422 The output voltage will always be 5V regardless of the supply voltage on the encoder

Open Collector
Instead of outputting a signal of a specific voltage or current, the output signal is applied to the base of an internal NPN transistor whose collector is externalized

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Incremental Encoders
Interface Summary

Incremental Encoder Electronic Interface Summary

Standard Supply voltages are 5VDC, 10-32 VDC, and 8-24VDC Standard outputs are TTL, HTL and Open collector Incremental Electronic Interface

TTL / RS 422 Supply = 5V

TTL / RS 422 Supply = 10 ... 32V

HTL / Push Pull Supply = 10 ... 32V

Open Collector Supply = 8-24 V

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Absolute Encoders
Singleturn vs Multiturn Absolute Encoders

Encoder

Rotary Encoder

Incremental

Absolute

Singleturn

Multiturn

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Singleturn and Multiturn Absolute

Singleturn

Multiturn
Measures the Absolute position within 1 revolution/turn In Addition, measures the number of revolutions as well.

Measures the Absolute position within 1 revolution/turn

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Absolute Encoder Interfaces

Absolute Electronic Interface

Parallel

SSI

BUS

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Parallel Output
:
Parallel Output
First form of communication for absolute encoders

Connection
Point-to-point communication where each output wire represents a different data bit

Benefits
Direct output to digital inputs Fast (60us typically)

Drawbacks

Complex cabling due to separate bit wires High cost

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Synchronous Serial Interface (SSI)


:
Synchronous Serial Interface (SSI)
Very common serial interface standard for industrial applications Developed by Stegmann in 1984 for absolute encoders now in many products

Connection
Point-to-point connection from a master (PLC, microcontroller) to a slave (encoder)

Benefits
Simple cabling, especially compared to parallel outputs Fast communication speeds Low cost

Drawbacks

Point-to-point connection, topology restrictions

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Network Encoders

What do we (or the customer) mean when we say network encoder?


- A network is a collection of products (sensors, HMIs, processes, etc) that are connected to a central controller or share information between parts. - Also known as Field Bus

- Example: an Internet VPN (virtual private network):

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Field Bus Interfaces :


Field Bus
Industrial network system that connects multiple products in a manufacturing plant or on a machine

Benefits
Products are no longer point-to-point which allow multiple products to be connected to one controller Generally does not require as many cables as a point to point configuration, and cables do not need to be as long. This saves on system costs. Typically the controller has more flexibility for configuration and information gathering

Disadvantages
The network topologies are generally more complex Individual components cost more than standalone products (potential system savings, however)

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SICK Absolute Encoder Fieldbus Interfaces

ATM60 Series
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AFx60 Series

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Electrical Interface Summary


Things to know when choosing an encoder

Incremental Encoders
- Resolution (PPR) - Supply Voltage - Output Voltage (HTL, TTL or Open Collector)

Absolute Encoders
- Resolution (singleturn, multiturn) - Output type

Parallel (output voltage needed) SSI Fieldbus

- Programmable Encoders:
DFS60 and DFS2x encoders let you program ALL electrical configurations except an open collector output

- Programmable Encoders
Programmable options for SSI encoders to program the resolution. All field bus encoders are programmable over their respective networks

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Encoder Selection Process

Type (Rotary, Linear, Incremental, Absolute) Electrical Interface Mechanical Considerations

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Mechanical Characteristics

Housings and Connection


Housing Size Cable or Connector

Shafts
Solid, blind hollow, through hollow Sizes, shaft load

Flange
Face mounting flange Servo flange Square Flange Tethers

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Encoder Selection Process

Type (Rotary, Linear, Incremental, Absolute) Electrical Interface

Mechanical Considerations

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Product Overview - Rotary Encoders

Absolute Singleturn Encoders

Absolute Multiturn Encoders

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Product Overview - Linear Encoders

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Key Products in 2013


Choice encoders that will solve most applications
DFS60 with PGT-10-S Programming Tool DFS20/25 Incremental Encoder AFx60 Series With Ethernet BCG Wiredraw with Analog Output

Handheld, battery operated programming tool Easy menu structure for fast setup and flexibility Can be used for diagnostics with the display or as a cloning module

USA sized encoders with SICKs F-Technology: Wide set bearings for even shaft loading

Absolute single- and multiturn encoders with EtherNet/IP, EtherCAT, and Profinet interfaces Device Level Ring (DLR) functionality with the EtherNet/IP version Superior diagnostics for temperature, speed, runtime, and many more

Compact wiredraw encoder for applications in tight spaces Up to 10m of measuring length Analog output scalable directly on the encoder for fast commissioning

Metal code disc for high vibration and temperature


Programmable using the PC-based tool

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Fields of applications
Packaging Print & Paper Wood industry

Machine Tooling

Automotive

Ports & Cranes

Handling

And many more


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Application Examples
OVERHEAD CRANE AFM60 EtherNet/IP used to track position of crane

CONVEYORS DKV60 used to track speed of conveyor

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Application Examples
WIND TURBINE Absolute encoder AFM60 for gandala and blade angle tracking

BOTTLING Absolute encoder AFS60 to track position of fillers

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Application Examples
STADIUM ROOF Position with KH53 Linear Encoder

LIFT APPLICATIONS Height and Width positioning using BGC Wiredraw Encoders

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