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Different Schools of Thought on Quality

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TQM Tools & Techniques


Type Methodologies Systems Human Res. Tools & Techniques SPC, JIT, Taguchi methods ISO 9000 & 14000 Total Emp Involvement(TEI), Proactive Mgmt, Quality Circles Quality Improvement Awards like Malcolm Baldridge & Deming Awards etc..
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Motivation
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Contributions of TQM Gurus


Areas of TQM Statistical Gurus Gauss, Pareto, Shewart, Fisher

Management
Execution

Juran, Crosby, Feigenbaum


Deming, Taguchi

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Key Quality Contributors


Walter Shewart

father of statistical quality control Control charts Variance reduction The 14 points
The key elements: Constancy of purpose, continual improvement, and profound knowledge Appreciation for the system

W. Edwards Deming

Reducing variation by distinguishing between special vs. common causes of variation Deming Prize PDSA Cycle
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Key Quality Contributors


Joseph M Juran

Quality Control Handbook (1951) Viewed quality as fitness-for-use Quality trilogy


Quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement Armand Feigenbaum

Quality is a total field and customer defines quality Total Quality Control (1961)
Philip B. Crosby

Quality is Free (1979) Zero defects Do it right the first time


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Key Quality Contributors


Kaoru Ishikawa

Cause-and-effect diagrams Quality circles Recognized the internal customer


Genichi Taguchi

Taguchi loss function


Determining the cost of poor quality Taiichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo

Developed philosophy and methods of kaizen, a Japanese term for continuous improvement
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Dr. W. E. Deming

Demings Background
Main architect for introducing Total Quality into Japan Born 1900 Graduated in Electrical Engineering PhD in mathematical physics Became statistician for US govt. Sent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to advise on Japanese census.
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Demings Philosophy
Quality is about people, not products Suggested quality concept for designing product Management need to understand nature of variation and how to interpret statistical data Promoted importance of leadership 85% of production faults responsibility of management, not workers Enumerated a 14-point management philosophy

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Product Development Cycle


1. 2. 3. 4. Design the product. Make it. Try to sell it. Do consumer research and test the products uses. 5. Redesign start the cycle all over again.

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Quality Approach
Quality

Costs

Productivity

Prices

Market Share

Stay in business

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Demings System of Profound Knowledge


Appreciation for a system Variation Theory of Knowledge Knowledge of Psychology

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


1. Create a vision and demonstrate commitment -- According to Deming Businesses should not exist for profit, but as social entities purpose to serve customers & emp.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


2. Learn the New Philosophy -- To effectively focus on the customers needs, everyone from the boardroom to stockroom, must learn the principles of quality.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


3. Understand Inspection
Inspection should be used as an information gathering tool for improvement, not as a means of assuring quality or blaming workers.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


4. Stop making decisions based on cost -- poor quality is always linked with hidden cost, which is far more than savings in accepting cheaper material.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


5. Improve constantly and forever
All functions in an organization need to become quality conscious to deliver a quality product.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


6. Institute Training
Institute training on the job. Everyone must be trained, as knowledge is essential for improvement.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


7. Institute leadership. -- It is a mangers job to help their people and their systems do a better job.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


8. Drive out fear and encourage two-way communication.
Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively. Management should be held responsible for the faults of the organization and environment.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


9. Remove barriers between departments
The lack of cooperation leads to poor quality because other deptts cannot understand what their internal customers want and do not get what they need.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


10. Eliminate buzz word
Set realistic targets. Do not place people under unnecessary pressure by asking them to do things which are not achievable. Slogans do not build quality systems.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


11. Eliminate quotas and numerical targets
Workers may short cut quality to reach the goal.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


12. Remove barriers to pride in Workmanship. -- Like performance appraisal destroys teamwork by
promoting competition for limited resources.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


13. Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone
Elevating the knowledge base of their work-force outside of job skills returns many benefits.

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Demings 14-point Management Philosophy


14. Take action
any cultural change begins with top management and includes everyone.

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PDSA Cycle
Shewart developed Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle for improvement of processes. Deming modified it as a PDSA cycle. Plan
- Establish Objectives - Establish a plan that will facilitate achieving the goal - Establish a measurement system. Do - Plan for implementation and measurements - Implement the plan on pilot basis
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PDSA Cycle
Study - Compare the results with the objectives - Identify gaps - Analyze the causes for gaps and exceptional results, if any Act - Standardize the procedure that met or exceeded the goal - If there were gaps, improve the plan and carry out PDSA again.
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Juran

Joseph M. Juran
Quality not just happen but has to be planned Trilogy of Quality Planning Quality Control Quality Improvement

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Joseph JURAN
Quality PLANNING consists of:
Identifying customers and their needs Establishing optimum quality goals Creating measurements of quality Plan to meet quality goals under operating conditions Produce continuing results

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Joseph JURAN
Emphasises the importance of internal as well as external customers Concept of fitness for use to be applied to the interim product for all internal customers Actions should consist of 90% substance, 10% buzz word (not the reverse)
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Crosby

The Crosby philosophy


Absolutes of Management
Quality means conformance to requirements not elegance. There is no such thing as quality problem. There is no such thing as economics of quality: it is always cheaper to do the job right the first time. The only performance measurement is the cost of quality: the cost of non-conformance.

Basic Elements of Improvement


Determination (commitment by the top management) Education (of the employees towards Zero Defects (ZD)) Implementation (of the organizational processes towards ZD)
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Genichi Taguchi

Taguchis Philosophy
Defines quality in terms of loss the loss a product causes to society after being shipped, other than losses caused by its intrinsic function He defines a loss function as a measure of the cost of quality He also developed a method for determining the optimum value of process variables which will minimize the variation in a process while keeping mean on target
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Background of the Taguchi Method


Introduced by Dr. Genichi Taguchi (1980)
Comparable in importance to Statistical Process Control (SPC), the Deming approach and the Japanese concept of TQC

Unique aspects of the Taguchi method


The Taguchi definition of quality The Taguchi Quality Loss Function (QLF) The concept of Robust Design

The Taguchi definition of quality


Ideal quality refers to a target value for determining the quality level Ideal quality is delivered if a product or service tangible performs its intended function throughout its projected life under reasonable operating conditions without harmful side effects Ideal quality is a function of customer perception and satisfaction Service quality is measured in terms of loss to society

The traditional definition is conformance to specifications


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Taguchi Cost Function


There are two views of what constitutes poor quality and hence the cost of poor quality: Taguchi view
Any deviation from the target value represents poor quality. Implication: Reducing the variation inherent in a process

Tradition view
As long as output is within specifications, there is no cost
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Taguchi Loss Function

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The Taguchi Quality Loss Function (I)


The traditional model for quality losses No losses within the specification limits!
Cost LSL Target USL Scrap Cost

The Taguchi loss function the quality loss is zero only if we are on target

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Computing The Taguchi QLF


Define
= The unit repair cost when the deviation from target equals the maximum tolerance level = Tolerance interval (allowable parameter variation from target to SL) T = Target value Y = The actual metric value for a specific product V = Deviation from target = Y-T L(V) = Economic penalty incurred by the customer as a result of quality deviation from target (The quality loss) The Loss Function L(V) = C(V/)2 C

Example: The repair cost for an engine shaft is Rs. 100. The shaft diameter is required to be 101 mm. On average the produced shafts deviates 0.5 mm from target. Determine the mean quality loss per shaft using the Taguchi QLF. Solution: per unit L(0.5) = C(V/)2 = 100(0.5/1)2 = 1000.25 = Rs. 25
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Taguchi Loss function can also be given by: L(x) = k (x T) 2 Example - 1 A blueprint specification for the thickness of a dishwasher part is 0.300 0.024 centimeters (cm). It costs $9 to scrap a bad part. Determine the Taguchi loss function.

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The Taguchi Loss Function is: L(x) = k (x - T)2 $9 = k (0.024)2 k = 15625 L(x) = k (x - T)2 = 15625 (x - T)2 Example 2 (a) Specifications are 10+- 3 for a particular pdt. Avg repair cost Rs. 230, determine Loss Function. (b) Determine the loss at x = 12
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Example 3
At Electro parts Mfgs IC business, Mgrs gathered data from a cust. Focus gp & found that any output voltage that exceeds 120+- 25 volts was unacceptable to the cust. Exceeding these limits results in an est. loss of Rs. 275. However, the mfg still adjust the voltage in the plant by changing a resistor that costs Rs. 1.75
(a). Determine the Taguchi Loss function. (b). Suppose the nominal spec. remains at 120 volts. At what tolerance should the IC be manufactured?
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The Taguchi Process (I)

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Shingo

Shingos Philosophy
Shingos teaching can be classified into 3 concepts: 1. Just in Time(JIT) A philosophy of manufacturing based on elimination of all waste & continuous improvement of productivity. 2. Single Minute Exchange of dies(SMED) associated with set up & changeover of dies. 3. Theory of zero QC Zero QC = Poka Yoke Techniques to control Defects+ Source Inspection to prevent defects.
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Other Quality Improvement Strategies Kaizen focuses on small, gradual, and frequent improvements over the long term with minimum financial investment and with participation by everyone in the organization. Poka - Yoke (meaning mistake proofing) This involves identifying potential error sources in the process and monitoring these sources for errors. A variant to this approach is FMEA
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Poka-Yoke Examples
Machines have limit switches connected to warning lights that tell the operator when parts are positioned improperly on the machine. Fast food restaurants use automated frenchfrying machines that can only be operated one way; the french fries are prepackaged and the equipment automated to reduce the chance of human error.
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Ishikawa

Ishikawa advocated the following principles: 1. Quality is a company wide issue and must wield an all pervasive influence on the way every issue of business is conducted. 2. Seven simplified tools of QC need to be used by all the people in an organisation. 3. Quality Control Circles (QCC)
A quality control circle consists of a small group of employees who do similar work and arrange to meet regularly to identify and analyze work-related problems, to brainstorm and to recommend and implement solutions.
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Ishikawas Philosophy

Quality Control Circles


Select problem State and re-state problems Collect facts Brainstorm Build on each other ideas Choose course of action Presentation
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Deming Prize Winning Firms


1. Sundram Clayton Ltd. (1998) 2. Sundram Brake Linings (2001) 3. TVS Motor Co. Ltd. (2002) 4. Brakes India Ltd. (2003) 5. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. ( 2003) 6. Rane Brake Linings Ltd. ( 2003) 7. Sona Kayo Steering Systems Ltd. (2003) 8. SRF Ltd. ( 2004) 9. Indo Gulf Fertilizers (2004) 10. Krishna Maruti Ltd. ( 2005) 11. Rane Engine Valves (2005)
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Strategy Quality Satisfy

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Quality is like religion, Some may worship it for fear of losing out in business, But many do it for the value it provides.
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