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Drg.Erna Sulistyani, M. Kes.

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Gangguan pengecapan

dapat menyebabkan penurunan nafsu makan terutama pada orang tua daat menyebabkan penurunan berat badan, kekurangan gizi, melemahkan sistem imun bahkan kematian

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Terdapat 5 sensasi rasa yaitu, manis, asam, pahit, asin dan umami. Adanya reseptor umami ini ditemukan di Jepang pada awal abad 20.Umami itu rasa pada kecap, keju, tomat, kacang-kacangan dan biji-bijian. Flavor : di tentukan oleh teksture, kepedasan (spicyness), temerature dan aroma . Flavor banyak ditentukan oleh indera penciuman. Loss of taste may be permanent or temporary, depending on the cause
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Hypogeusia : reduced ability to taste sweet, sour,

bitter, salty, and umami, Ageusia : bila seseorang sama sekali tidak dapat merasakan kelima rasa tersebut Dysgesia : condition in which a foul, salty, rancid, or metallic taste sensation will persist in the mouth. Biasa terkait dengan BMS.

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Penyebab
Upper respiratory and middle ear infections
Radiation therapy for cancers of the head and neck Exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides and

some medications, including some common antibiotics and antihistamines Head injury.

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Poor oral hygiene and dental problems


Aging (jarang) Illness Anything that interrupts the transfer of taste

sensations to the brain, or by conditions that affect the way the brain interprets the sensation of taste

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Defisiensi Zinc (??)


mouth dryness, heavy smoking, vitamin deficiencies, Bell's palsy, and Sjogren's syndrome

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antihypertensives, antimicrobials and antidepressants

dsb bisa menyebabkan drug-related chemosensory disturbances. Kepekaan tergantung pada sex, age, body mass and genetic variations.

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Symptoms and Diagnosis


The most common taste complaint is "phantom taste

perception" -- tasting something when nothing is in the mouth. (Dysgeusia) Hypogeusia (the reduced ability to taste). Usually temporary. True taste disorders are rare. Most changes in the perception of food flavor result from the loss of smell. Ageusia : caused by head trauma; some surgical procedures, such as middle ear surgery or extraction of the third molar; radiation therapy; and viral infections.

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More often, people with taste disorders experience a specific ageusia of one or more of the five taste categories: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami, or savory.

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Are taste disorders serious?


Taste disorders can weaken or remove an early warning

system that most of us take for granted. Loss of taste can create serious health issues. A distorted sense of taste can be a risk factor for heart disease,diabetes,stroke and other illnesses that require sticking to a specific diet..

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Loss of taste can cause us to eat too much sugar or salt

to make our food taste better. This can be a problem for people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. In severe cases, loss of taste can lead to depression. Loss of taste and smell can also be a sign of certain degenerative diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinson s disease or Alzheimers disease.

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Treatment.
Keberhasilan terapi ditentukan oleh penyebab dari

taste disorder Bila tidak bisa disembuhkan maka diperlukan konseling untuk menjaga diet dengan baik Bila penyebabnya adalah obat maka obat bisa dihentikan atau digantikan dengan sejenisnya dengan pertimbangan dokter yang merawat. Sering perbaikan pada kesehatan umum (termasuk psikis) secara keseluruhan juga akan memperbaiki tase disorder.
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Occasionally, a person may recover his or her sense of

taste spontaneously. Proper oral hygiene is important to regaining and maintaining a well-functioning sense of taste. Prepare foods with a variety of colors and textures. Use aromatic herbs and hot spices to add more flavor; however, avoid adding more sugar or salt to foods. If diet permits, add small amounts of cheese, bacon bits, butter, olive oil, or toasted nuts on vegetables.
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