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Motivating for performance

Disusun oleh: Catharina Tan Sources : Plunkett, Slocum, Bateman

Learning Goals
1. Describe four approaches that can be used to explain employee motivation and satisfaction

2. Explain how managers can use goals and rewards to improve performance
3. Describe how jobs can be designed to be motivational and satisfying

Motivation: a psychological state that exists whenever internal and/or external forces stimulate, direct, or maintain behaviors Satisfaction: a psychological state that indicates how people feel about their situation, based on their evaluation of the situation

Motivation:
Bateman: Forces that energize, direct and sustain a persons effort Plunkett: The result of the interaction of a persons internalized needs and external influences that determine behavior
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Manager Behavior Job Design Organization Context Individual Differences

Consequences for employers and employees Employee Motivation Employee Satisfaction Improved individual and team performance Satisfied customers High morale Reduced turnover

Motivation Model

Managers must motivate people


To join the organization 2. To remain in the organization 3. To come to work regularly mgrs has to create an environmentg that will attract and energize people so that they commit to organization 4. To perform, to be productive and high quality 5. Exhibit good citizenship
1.
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Integrated Motivational Model

Practical actions by managers to enhance motivation


1. Inspire employees through one-on-one communication 2. Set specific and challenging goals that employees accept and will strive to achieve 3. Provide employees with praise, recognition, or other rewards

Goals
Specific Difficult Accepted

Goals
Directs attention Energizes Encourages persistency New strategies developed
Performance

Feedback

Pitfalls
Focusing on performance may reduce learning

Possible Solutions
Include goals that recognize the importance of learning as well as maximizing performance Be sure employees have the training and resources they need to achieve their goals Establish group goals and a shared vision

Employees may feel stressed

Individual goals may create conflict among members of a team

(continued)

Theories of Motivation
Content Theories
A group of motivation theories emphasizing the needs that motivate people ---focusing on needs

Process Theories

A group of theories that explain how employees choose behaviors to meet their needs and how they determine whether their choices were successful ----focusing on behaviors
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Content Theories--understanding peoples needs


1.

2.
3. 4.

Maslows need Hierarchy Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory Alderfers ERG Theory McClellands Needs

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Process theories focusing on behaviours


1. Goal

Setting Theory 2. Reinforcement Theory 3. Expectancy Theory 4. Equity Theory

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Four Premises

1. Only an unsatisfied need can influence behavior; a


2.
satisfied need is not a motivator A persons needs are arranged in a priority order of importance A person will at least minimally satisfy each level of need before feeling the need at the next level If need satisfaction is not maintained at any level, the unsatisfied need will become a priority once again

3.
4.

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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


SelfRealization Needs Esteem Needs
Reaching Your Potential Independence Creativity Self-Expression

Responsibility Self-Respect Recognition Sense of Accomplishment

Social Needs

Companionship Acceptance Love and Affection Group Membership

Safety Needs

Security for Self and Possessions Avoidance of Risks Avoidance of Harm Avoidance of Pain

Physical Needs

Food Clothing Shelter Comfort Self-Preservation


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Herzbergs Two-Factor

Theory

Hygiene Factors

Motivators

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Hygiene Factors
Salary

Job Security
Working Conditions Status Company Policies Quality of Technical Supervision Quality of Interpersonal Relations
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Motivation Factors
Achievement Recognition Responsibility Advancement The Work Itself Possibility of Growth

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Hygiene and Motivation Factors

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McClelland & the Need for

Achievement
Achievement Power

Affiliation

1. A strong achievement need relates to how well


individuals are motivated to perform their work

2. The achievement need can be strengthened by


training
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High Achiever
Characteristics

Performs a task because of a need for


personal achievement

Prefers to take personal responsibility for


solving problems

Prefers to set moderate goals that, with


stretching, are achievable

Prefers immediate and concrete feedback


about performance

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Power-Motivated Person
Characteristics

Needs to acquire, exercise, and maintain


influence over others

Competes with others if success will allow


them to be dominant

Does not avoid confrontations

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Affiliator
Characteristics

Wants to be liked by other people Attempts to establish friendships Seeks to avoid conflict Prefers conciliation

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Comparison of Theories

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Alderfers ERG Theory


Growth

Relatedness

Existence

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Comparison of Theories

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Behavior-Oriented Theories
Expectancy Theory Reinforcement Theory

Equity Theory

Goal-Setting Theory

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Goal-Setting Theory
Goal-Setting Theory A motivation theory stating that behavior is influenced by goals, ---- people have concious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.

Powerful goals are meaningful goals Motivating goals should be SMART goals
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Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement Theory
A motivation theory that states a supervisors reactions and past rewards and penalties affect employees behavior

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The Consequences of Behavior

Reinforcement Theory
Reinforcement Consistent Rewards

Stimulus Managers Request

Response Individual Behavior

Reward Positive Recognition

Results Learned Behavior


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Types of Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement Avoidance

Extinction
Punishment

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Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory
A motivation theory stating that three factors influence behavior: the value of rewards, the relationship of rewards to the necessary performance, and the effort required for performance

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Basic Concepts of Expectancy Theory

Model of Expectancy Theory


Organizational Rewards

Behavior Motivation

Individual Effort Required

Individual Performance

Outcome

Organizational Rewards

Expectancy
Domestic Problems
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Expectancy Theory
1. Effort-performance link 2. Performance-reward link

3. Attractiveness

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Equity Theory
Equity Theory
A motivation theory stating that comparisons of relative inputoutcome ratios influence behavior choices

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Equity Theory
Result: Equity Motivation to Perform

Comparison: Self to Others

Result: Inequity

Motivation to Rationalize, Fight Inequity, or Quit

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Managing for Motivation


Treat people as individuals Recognize and value diversity Provide support Empower employees

Provide an effective reward system


Promote intrapreneurship

Redesign jobs
Create flexibility in work

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An Effective Reward System


Characteristics

Rewards must satisfy the basic needs of all


employees

Rewards must be comparable to those offered by


competitive organizations in the same area

Rewards must be equally available to people in the


same positions and be distributed fairly and equitably

The reward system must be multifaceted

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Job Design Approach to Employee Satisfaction and Motivation


Job characteristics theory: employees are more satisfied and motivated when their jobs are meaningful, when jobs create a feeling of responsibility, and when jobs are designed to ensure that some feedback is available

Job Redesign
Requires a knowledge of and concern for human
qualities

Requires knowledge of the qualities of jobs Usually tailors a job to fit the person who must
perform it

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Approaches to Job Redesign


Job Enlargement Increasing the variety or the number of tasks a job includes

Job Rotation

Temporarily assigning people to different jobs on a rotating basis


Designing a job to provide more responsibility, control, feedback, and authority

Job Enrichment

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Elements of Job Enrichment


Variety of tasks Task importance Task responsibility Feedback

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Promoting Intrapreneurship
Encourage action Use informal meetings whenever possible Tolerate failure and use it as a learning experience Be persistent Reward innovation for innovations sake Plan physical layout to encourage informal
communication Reward and/or promote innovative personnel Encourage people to go around red tape Eliminate rigid procedures Organize people into small teams to pursue future-oriented projects
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Creating Flexibility
Flextime Compressed Workweek Job Sharing

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