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2013

ENGLISH PMR: GRAMMAR

TENSES

Parts of speech

Definition

Examples

Noun (kata nama)

A word that names a person, place, thing, animal, concept or activity or idea. Uncountable nouns : cannot be counted Countable nouns : can be counted
A word that describes an action or state

tree, apple, orange, kitten, hospital, frog e.g.: The cat jumps over the fence.

talk, eat, run, shout, jump, is , was, am. e.g. : The cat climbs. I, he, she, it, they, we, our, itself A word that takes the place of a noun e.g.: Ali likes durian. He is eating it now. beautiful, tall, clever, blue, red, A word that describes a noun or kind pronoun e.g.: A beautiful clever girl. quickly, fast, slowly, very, A word that gives more information carefully Adverb about a verb, an adjective or an (sifat kata) e.g.: The cat walks slowly and adverb

Verb (kata kerja) Pronoun (ganti nama) Adjective (sifat nama)

Parts Of Speech

Definition

Examples

Conjunction A word that joins two or (Kata more words, phrases or Hubung) clauses. Interjection A word used to show (kata seruan) strong feeling.

and, or, but, however, therefore, moreover, so, although Ouch! Wow! Ah! Ops! Hey!

PAST

PRESENT

FUTURE

SIMPLE
CONTINUOUS PERFECT

SIMPLE
CONTINUOUS PERFECT

Simple Present
Singular I You ------He She It (verb) eat catch sleep -----eats catches sleeps Plural (verb) We You They eat catch sleep

-Mother goes to the market twice a week. - Aina is a good girl. She always sleeps early. - He always comes to school early. - I eat noodles everyday.

Present Continuous (to show habitual action / something


that is happening) Singular I ----You ----He She It ( verb + ing ) am ---are ---is Plural ( verb + ing )

eating catching sleeping

We You They

are

eating catching sleeping

- The teacher is teaching now. - I am sleeping early tonight. - They are eating noodles.

Present Perfect (To describe something that has ended or still


continuing) Singular I You ------He She It (verb past participle) eaten studied slept Plural We You They (verb past participle) have eaten studied slept have -----has

I have eaten noodles. He has studied for PMR. They have slept for 12 hours! Ali ??? eaten two pieces of fried chicken.

Simple Past
Singular (verb) ate caught studied Plural We You They (verb) ate caught studied

I You He She It

-Mother went to the market yesterday. - Aina studied very late last night. - We ate fried fish for lunch.

Past Continuous (to show something that happened in the past


at the same time / something that happened at a specific moment in the past) Singular I He She was It - - - - - - - - - - -You were ( verb + ing ) Plural ( verb + ing )

eating catching lying

We You They

were

eating catching lying

-Ali was eating fried chicken when I called. - You were sleeping while the teacher was teaching!

Past Perfect (to show two events in the past)


Singular (verb past I participle) You had He eaten She caught It lied Plural We You They (verb past participle)

had

eaten caught lied

-Ali had eaten fried chicken before he slept.

Future Tense
Singular (base form verb) I You eat will He catch She study It Plural We You They will (base form verb) eat catch study

-Ali will study for the test. - You will eat with your uncle tomorrow.

Practice: Present Tense


Present Tense Exercise 1 Each question in the text below refers to a numbered blank. For each question, choose the best answer from the options A, B, C and D to fit the numbered blanks Malaysians like to go on picnics . On weekends and public holidays, picnickers ________(1) on beaches with their family or friends to ________(2) their minds and bodies. They ________(3) in the sea or just ________(4) on mats and ________(5) children splashing about. When it ________(6) time for lunch, they help themselves heartily to the delicious food and drinks they ________(7) brought along with them. They listen to songs and ________(8) games. Children build sandcastles and ________(9) seashells. Soon it is time to________(10) home. Everyone feels tired but happy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A A A A A A A A A A gather relax swim lie watch was have play collects go B B B B B B B B B B gathered relaxing swum lay watching is has playing collect come C C C C C C C C C C gathers relaxed swam laid watched were are played collected goes D D D D D D D D D D gathering relaxes swimming lies watches are is plays collecting comes

Practice: Past Tense


Exercise 2 Each question in the text below refers to a numbered blank. For each question, choose the best answer from the options A, B, C and D to fit the numbered blanks A crowd of people ________ (1) inside the tent to see the circus. There ________ (2) a lot of clowns with red noses which seemed to glow. One of the clowns had a little monkey that ________(3) up a stick. Another one ________(4) to be a frog and jumped about on the grass, croaking. Everybody ________(5). One played funny tune on a flute. Then some acrobats _______(6) running into the ring while the band played some exciting music. They bowed to the crowd and then took off their cloaks and climbed up some ropes to the roof of the tent. The band ________ (7) playing. Then they began to swing from one rope to another, flying through the air like bird men! One of them seemed to slip in the middle of a flight. This ________(8) the crowd a fright, but he was only pretending. When acrobats ________(9), the band played a cheerful tune. This ________ (10) by a warm applause of the crowd. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A go A is A climbed A pretend A laughing A come A stopped A give A finished A was followed B B B B B B B B B B went are climbing pretending laughed came stop gave finishing were followed C C C C C C C C C C goes was climb pretended laugh coming stopping given finish is followed D D D D D D D D D D going were climbs pretends laughter comes stops give finishes are followed

Prepositions

To show the location or position of something (on, in, under, across) To show direction (to, from, towards) To show time (after, since, before)

Practice 1
I had been warned that the twins were not called the Horrible Twins without any justification. However I was not prepared for the sight ________(1) my eyes. Eng Hock was sitting________(2) Eng Sengs shoulders while Eng Hock was balancing an empty tin________(3) the tip of his nose. When I told them to stop their act, Eng Hock jumped________(4) Eng Sengs shoulder and landed ________(5) me. Then he took out a matchbox ________(6) his pocket. He held the box ________(7) my face and suddenly opened it. There was a big spider________(8) in the box. Then, he held the spider ________(9) his thumb and forefinger. Next, he threw the spider over my head and it landed________(10) the table in front of me.

1 A 2 A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 8 A 9 A 10.A

before at near away over in front of between in over on

B B B B B B B B B B

by on from off at under in on on off

C C C C C C C C C C

at from over of beside from near beside between in

D D D D D D D D D D

in along on over with below along under in with

PMR 2010 Question 11 18 are based on the following text. Ever had a common cold? It is infection occurring in the nose and throat. It is caused by viruses and normally ____(11)___ two to five days to recover. Viruses causing common colds are very contagious and ___(12)____ spread by sneezes and coughs. The symptoms of a cold are runny nose and weepy eyes. ___(13)___ people also suffer from sore throat, headache and fever. Preventive measures can be taken to avoid being bitten ___(14)___ a cold bug. Firstly, avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands. ___(15)___, always cover your mouth when sneezing. It is advisable to use tissues rather than handkerchiefs as they can be discarded after use. Besides, avoid sharing utensils and personal items. Lastly, avoid contact with others suffering from cold. If you suffer ___(16)___ a cold, you should rest. Resting helps to build up ___(17)___ immune system. Drinking at least eight glasses of water a day helps loosen mucus, enabling you to cough or blow out ___(18)___ . You can also gargle with warm, salty water to ease throat irritations. If all these fail to relieve your problem, consult a doctor. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. A A A A A A A A take is All by Finally of its easy B B B B B B B B takes are Less from Later for our easily C C C C C C C C taken was Few with Next with your easier D D D D D D D D taking were Some in Soon from their easiest

SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION

Simple sentence It must have at least one object and one verb Subject + Verb : To show what happened in the story

Subject He She It I You We They

Verb slept (in the room) smiles (at me) died (yesterday) will go to Langkawi were shopping there have arrived at the jetty are playing football

SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION

Simple sentence Subject + Verb + Object : To show action done on someone/ something else

Subject He She It I You We They

Verb thanked praises is looking at scolded make will read eat

Object me him her them coffee books durians

SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION

Simple sentence Subject + was / were + ing : To show what was happening in the story (past continuous tense)

Subject I He She It You We They

Verb (to be) was was was was were were were

+ ing reading playing fishing sleeping playing fishing sleeping

SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION

Simple sentence Subject + was / were + what : To describe people, things, place or time

Subject He She It I You We They

Verb (to be) was was was was were were were

Descriptive (adj) happy worried hungry surprised angry cold young

(3A, 3B) PMR BASED EXERCISE (ESSAY WRITING)

(3C, 3D, 3E) PMR BASED EXERCISE (ESSAY WRITING)

Then, Rahim opened the bag. It was full of money. He was extremely shocked. He looked around but there was nobody nearby.

PRESENT TENSE:

go goes
went

PAST TENSE: the policeman the police station the bag Soon after, After that, Then, Not long after that,