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 Theprocess of elaborating a specific
product as a result of the activity of a
gland which may range from separating a
specific substance of the blood to the
elaboration of a new chemical substance.

 Glandsare those organs or tissues in

which there are cells encaged in the
synthesis , storage & discharge of
secretory products . There are two major
categories of gland in the body .
 Synthesize hormones & secrete them into
extracellular spaces from they enters the
blood stream or lymphatic system .
 They do not possess a duct system & the
secretion enters the blood stream rapidly
& it does not leave the body until it is
ultimately metabolized or excreted .
 Theirsecretions are discharged from the
secretory cells onto a surface & not into
the extra cellular spaces .
 The secretion passes through a system of
ducts ( which may be a passive transport
system or may modify the secretion )
which may transport it to the surface or
the site of discharge . The secretion may
be on body surface or on to an internal
surface like the intestine .
Holocrine secretion
 HOLOCRINE = Wholly secreted ; denoting
that type of glandular secretion in which
the entire secreting cell, along with its
accumulated secretion , forms the
secreted matter of the gland .
 The secretion from a gland consists of
complete , usually degenerate cells like
the sebaceous glands of the skin .
Apocrine secretion
 APOCRINE = Denoting that type of
glandular secretion in which the free end
or apical portion of the secreting cell is
cast off along with the secretory products
that have accumulated therein .
 In apocrine glands , a variable but
substantial amount of cytoplasm is
supposed to be lost during secretion .
 It is now known that , in mammary gland &
axillary sweat glands , very little or even
no cytoplasmic ground substance is lost
when the secretion leaves the cell .
Merocrine secretion
 MEROCRINE = Partly secreted ; denoting
the type of glandular secretion in which
the secreting cell remains intact
throughout the process of formation &
discharge of the secretory products as in
the salivary & pancreatic glands .
 The secretory product diffused from the
cell so that no cellular contents are lost .
 Serous : is clear , low viscosity fluid
containing proteins .
 Mucous : is opaque high viscosity
fluid containing high proportion of
 Mixed
1. Transport of water & raw materials into
the cell from plasma .
2. Their movement through the cytoplasm
together with synthesis & storage .
3. The extrusion of the product into:
A. a lumen in case of exocrine, or
B. into plasma of blood in case of endocrine
gland .
 Pressuregradients across the membrane
created by hydrostatic or osmotic forces
moves the water across the membrane .

 Some solute passively transferred by

hydrostatic & osmotic forces , but this is
limited by water & lipid solubility & the
charge , size & shape of the molecules .
 In some glands , the secreted fluid
contains one or more constituents in
higher concentration than in plasma ,
exerts an osmotic pull on fluid across the
cell into the secretion .
Regulation of secretion
Higher centres

Short feedback
Releasing hormone
eg. LH, ACTH,
GH Pituitary
Long feedback
Pituitary hormone Loop
eg. Thyroxine,
Target gland Cortisol

Hypothalamus regulates secretion of hormones from
anterior and posterior pituitary ,ANS regulates
secretion of hormones from adrenal medulla and

Sympathetic nerves stimulate the secretion of

adrenal medulla

Parasympathetic nerves stimulate the secretion of

pancreatic islets

sex hormones from gonads regulate the