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Community Health Nursing

Chapter 23 Assessment of Families

Effects of family health on individual and community


The health of each family member effects the other members and contributes to the level of family health . Family Function . Family health standards . Healthy family influences community positively and vice versa.

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


1. A facilitative process of interaction exists among family members. 2. Individual member development is enhanced. 3. Role relationships are structured effectively . 4. Active attempts are made to cope with problems .

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


5. There is a healthy home environment and lifestyle . 6. Regular links with the broader community are established .

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


1. Healthy interactions among members :
Healthy families communicate Interactions are frequent and assume many forms Healthy family use frequent verbal communication Effective communication is necessary for a family to carry out basic function .

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


2. Enhancement of individual development :
Healthy families are responsive to the needs of individual members and provide the freedom and support necessary to promote each members growth. Pattern for promoting individual member vary from one family to another.

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


3. Effective Structuring of relationship:
Healthy family structure role relationships to meet changing family needs over time. Changing life cycle stages require alterations in the structure of relation

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


4. Active coping effort:
Healthy family actively attempt to overcome lifes problems and issues. Coping skills are needed to deal with emotional tragedies. Healthy families cope with less dramatic , day-to-day changes.

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


5. Healthy environment and lifestyle : Healthy family creates safe and hygienic living conditions for their members A healthy family lifestyle encourages appropriate balance in the lives of its members . The emotional climate of a healthy family is positive and supportive of growth.

Characteristics of Healthy Family:


6. Regular links with the broader community : Healthy families maintain dynamic ties with the community An unhealthy family has not recognize the values of establishing links because of : 1. Knowledge Deficit. 2. Previous negative experience. 3. A lack of connection because of family expectation or cultural practice.

Family Health Practice guidelines


Family Nursing : is a kind of nursing practice in which the family is the unit of services. Not merely family oriented Holistic approach

Family Health Practice guidelines


Five principle guide and enhance family nursing practice : 1. Work with the family collectively . 2. Start where the family is . 3. Adapt nursing intervention to the family stage of development. 4. Recognize the validity of family structural variations. 5. Emphasize family strength

Five principle guide and enhance family nursing practice


1. Work with the family collectively
Set aside usual focus on individual View the family as one unit Community health nurses want to involve all of the family during nurseclient interaction. Encourage everyones participation.

Five principle guide and enhance family nursing practice


2. Start where the family is
Begin at the present level of functioning Conduct a family assessment to ascertain the members needs and level of health Determine collective interests, concerns and proprieties

Five principle guide and enhance family nursing practice


3. Adapt nursing intervention to the familys stage of development : Awareness of familys developmental stage enables the nurse to assess the appropriateness of the familys level of functioning and to tailor intervention accordingly.

Five principle guide and enhance family nursing practice


4. Recognize the validity of family structural variations:
Two important principles to remember : I. What is normal for one family is not necessarily normal for another . II. Families are constantly changing.

Five principle guide and enhance family nursing practice


5. Emphasize family strengths Too often, nurse focus on family weaknesses ( Negative emphasis ) this is not truly therapeutic. Families need their strength reinforced . Emphasizing a family strength makes people feel better about themselves. The nurse lists positive points about an otherwise negative situation.

Family Health Assessment:


To assess a familys level in a systematic three tools are needed : 1. A conceptual framework on which to base the assessment. 2. A clearly defined set of assessment categories for data collection. 3. A method for measuring familys level of functioning.

Family Health Assessment:


1. Conceptual Framework : is a set of concepts integrated into a meaning explanation that helps one interpret human behavior or situation. Three framework that are particularly useful in community health nursing : A. The interactional framework. B. The structural-functional framework. C. The developmental framework.

1. Conceptual Framework
A. The Interactional framework: describes the family as a unit of interacting personalities and emphasize communication, roles, conflict, coping pattern, and decision making process. This framework focuses on the internal relationships but neglect the family interaction with the external environment .

1. Conceptual Framework
B. The structural framework describes the family as a social system relating to other social system in the external environment.
This framework examine the interacting functions of society and the family (External), consider family structure and analyze how a familys structure affects its function .

1. Conceptual Framework
C. The developmental framework studies families from a lifecycle perspective by examining members changing roles and tasks in each progressive life-cycle stage. This framework incorporate elements from interactional and structural-functional approaches so that family structure function, and interaction are viewed in the context of the environment at each stage of family development .

2. Data collection categories:


There are 12 categories : 1. Family demography . 2. Physical environment . 3. Psychological and spiritual environment. 4. Family structure and roles. 5. Family function. 6. Family values and beliefs.

2. Data collection categories:


7. Family communication pattern 8. Family decision-making patterns 9. Family problem solving patterns 10.Family coping pattern 11.Family health behavior 12.Family social and cultural patterns.

3. Assessment Method:
Three well-known graphic assessment tools are : 1. Eco-map: is a diagram of the connection between the family and the other system in its ecologic environment. Fig. (23 1)

3. Assessment Method:
2. The genogram : displays family information graphically in a way that provides a quick view of complex family pattern. Fig. (23 2)

3. Assessment Method:
3. Social network support map ( Grid ):gives details about the quality of social connection. Fig. (23 3)

Guide lines for family health assessment :


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Focus on the family as total unit. Ask goal-directed questions. Collect data over time. Combine quantitative and qualitative. Exercise professional judgment.

Family care plan:


Family assessment and planning instrument : This is an assessment and planning instrument to help you to organize your data . Its not be taken into a home as an interviewing instrument.

Family and care plan:


FAMILY ROLE-RELATIONSHIP PATTERN : Initial of family ________ surname ________ Persons living in the house hold Given name only: ________ Date of birth: ________ Age : ________ Sex: ________ Relation to head of Household: ________ Occupation: ________

Family care plan:


FAMILY ROLE-RELATIONSHIP PATTERN : Identify primary care giver : ________ Members of family not living in household : Significant others : ________ Pets : ________ Occupation history of each adult member ( Past/Present ) : ________ Job Identification : ________ Exposure to health hazards : ________ Family dynamics : ________

Family care plan:


Communication pattern : Expression of feelings ( happiness , sadness , fear , anger ) Verbal and non-verbal : How are message transmitted ?

Family care plan:


Social relations Who do the family members interact with outside the immediate family , and what community activities do they participate in ? Extend family ________ , Neighbors ________ . Friends ________ , Mosques ________ , Clubs ________ . Community activities ( list ) ________ .

Family care plan:


Income Family income : ________ . Source : salary ________ , saving ________ , investment ________ . Others ________ . Contribution of working members : Member : ________ , Amount : ________ (JD, $ & SH ) Are expenses greater , less than or equal to income : ________ Who plans how the money is spent ?

Family care plan:


1. FAMILY COGNITIVE / PERCEPTION PATTERN : Educational level , What is the highest grade completed ? Adults : ________ Children : ________ Members of the family with learning or developmental disabilities ? Decision making : Who make the decisions ? Give examples :

Family care plan:


2. FAMILY SELF PERCEPTION / SELF CONCEPT PATTERN : Family's perception of their ability to maintain their family unit : Family's pride in their home : Family residence : Type : Single : ________ , Multifamily : ________ , Own : ________ , Rent : ________ Describe condition of home inside and outside : Number of rooms : ________

Family care plan:


Space : Adequate : ________, Inadequate : ________ Furniture : Adequate : ________ , Inadequate : ________ Accident hazards : ________ Neighborhood : ________ Residential : ________ . Industrial : ________ . Rural : ________ . Urban : ________ . Suburban : ________. Other : ________ . Condition of dwellings and streets :

Family care plan:


Accessibility of : Play area : Yes ________ . No ________ Health facilities ( List ) : Yes ________ . No________ Mosques , Churches : Yes________ . No ________ Schools : Yes ________ . No ________ Public transportation ? Type ? ________ Family's method of transportation :________ Neighborhood health hazard : ________ Family's perception of safety in the neighborhood ?

Family care plan:


3. FAMILY NUTRTIONAL-METABOLIC PATTERN : Observation about kitchen and mealtimes : Who does the grocery shopping ? Who does the cooking ? Therapeutic diets : Observation of family member of nutritional 24-hrs food/fluid intake : Break fast , Lunch , Dinner , Snacks Analyze if diet provides nutrients ? How is food stored ? Water supply :Municipal , Well , Other.

Family care plan:


4. FAMILY ELIMINATION PATTERN : Compliance with garbage regulations ? Yes ________ . No ________ . If no , explain ? Rodents ? Yes ________ . No ________ . Insects ? Yes ________ . No ________ . Toilet facilities ? Yes ________ . No ________ .

Family care plan:


5. FAMILY ACTIVITY-EXERCISE PATTERN : Adults leisure ________ . Children leisure ________ . Shared family activities ________ . Type of activities required for family roles : ________________ . Adults : ________ . Children : ________ . Describe pace of family life : Fast : ________. Moderate : ________ . Slow : ________.

Family care plan:


6. FAMILY ACTIVITY SLEEP-REST PATTERN : Which family member sleep alone ? What type of bed does each have ? What are the usual hours of sleep ? Bedtime , arising , rest periods for adult and children ? Are they any disturbances in family sleep pattern ?

Family care plan:


7. FAMILY SEXUALITYREPRODUCTION PATTERN : Sexual relationships : Family planning : Sex education of children :

Family care plan:


8. FAMILY VALUE AND BELIEF PATTERN ? Ethnic background ________ . Influence on health behavior . Religious affiliation ________ . Degree of family involvement ________ . Influences on health behavior : Family's definition of health : Health beliefs and attitudes : Folk medicine : Use of non-traditional healing methods : Acceptance / non-acceptance of help from community agencies ?

Family care plan:


9. FAMILY COPING STRESS TOLERANCE PATTERN : How has the family managed in previous situation of illness or crises ? Own resources ________ . Extended family : ________ . Other relatives ________ . Friends ________ . Neighborhood ________ . Significant others ________ . Health professional ________. Other ________ . Caregiver's perception of their ability to deal with crises : Client perception of caregiver's / family ability to deal with demands of care :

Family care plan:


10. FAMILY HEALTH PERCEPTION HEALTH MANAGEMENT PATTERN : Reason for visit : Family's perception of their level of health : Medical diagnosis of each family member : Familial disease ( heart , cancer , stroke , anemia , .. etc ) History of past significant illness and accident of each family member : Risk factors ( tobacco , alcohol , obesity , lack exercise ) :

Family care plan:


Family health practice : Immunization status of each family member : Self exam ( breast , testicular , .. etc ) Preventive exams ( dental , colon/rectal ) : Names of physician / date of last appointment and next scheduled appointment for each family member : Medication : is any family member taken any medication ? Yes: ------. No : ------ .

Family care plan:


If yes ( including over the counter drugs ) : Name of the drug _______ .How often taken : ______. Drug action ________ .Side effects : ________ . Date of prescription : ________ .Number of refills : ___ . Physician : ________ .Pharmacist : ________ . Treatment prescribed for family members : Level of compliance with prescribed medication and treatments :

Family care plan:


Financing health care : Health insurances : ________ . Private insurances : ________ . Own finance : ________ .

Family nursing diagnosis:


Examples for family nursing diagnosis: Family Processes, Dysfunctional: Alcoholism ( substance abuse ). Family Processes, Interrupted. Family Processes, Readiness for Enhanced. Family coping, ineffective. Family coping, potential for growth.

Family nursing diagnosis:


Examples for family nursing diagnosis: Parental role conflict. Parent/infant/child attachment, altered, risk for. Parenting, altered. Parenting, altered, risk for. Role performance, altered Social interaction, impaired. Social isolation.