Anda di halaman 1dari 14

SURVEY METHODS:

Communicating With
Participants

1
Communication Approach
Impacts the Research Process
 Creation and selection of measurement
questions
 Sampling issues, drive contact and callback
procedures
 Instrument design, which incorporates
attempts to reduce error and create
participant-screening procedures
 Data collection processes, which create the
need for follow-up procedures and possible
2
interviewer training
Personal Interview
 Requirements for success
• Availability of the needed information from the
participant
• An understanding by the participant of his or
her role
• Adequate motivation by the participant to
cooperate

3
Personal Interview
 To Increase participant’s receptiveness
they must
• believe the experience will be pleasant
and satisfying
• think answering the survey is an
important and worthwhile use of their
time
• have any mental reservations satisfied
4
The Interview
 Introduction

• Establish a good relationship

 Gather the data


• Probing

 Record the interview

5
Probing Styles
A brief assertion of understanding and
interest
 An expectant pause

 Repeating the question

 Repeating the participant’s reply

 A neutral question or comment

 Question clarification

6
Interview Problems
 Nonresponse error

7
Interview Problems
 Nonresponse error
 Response error

• participant-initiated
• interviewer error

8
Interview Problems
 Interviewer error
• Failure to secure cooperation
• Failure to execute interview procedures
• Failure to establish appropriate environment
• Falsification of answers
• Inappropriate interviewing behavior
• Failure to accurately record answers
• Physical presence bias
9
Interview Problems
 Nonresponse error
 Response error

 Cost

10
Telephone Interview
 Types

• Computer-assisted telephone interviewing


• Computer-administered telephone survey
 Problems

• Noncontact rate
• Refusal rate

11
Self-Administered Surveys
 Types

• Mail survey
• Computer-delivered
• Intercept studies
 Disadvantages

• Large nonresponse error


• Cannot obtain detailed or large amounts of
information

12
Concurrent Techniques to
Improve Mail Response

 Reduce  Anonymity
Length
 Survey Sponsorship  Size,Color, and
 Return Envelopes Reproduction
 Money Incentives
 Postage
 Deadline Dates
 Personalization
 Cover Letters

13
Outsourcing Survey Services
 Research Firms Provide
• Centralized-location interviewing
• Focus group facilities
• Trained staff with experience
• Data-processing and statistical analysis
capabilities
• Access to point-of-sale data
Panels

14