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INTRODUCTION TO INTEGERS

Man invented whole numbers. As he progressed, then arose situations, in which whole numbers where found inadequate. Example: 7-3 =4 3-7 =?

Man invented whole numbers. As he progressed, then arose situations, in which whole numbers where found inadequate. Example: 7-3 =4 3-7 =?

In this chapter, we shall extend the system of whole numbers to the system of integers. We shall also learn the four fundamental operations. Integers are whole numbers that describe opposites.

OPPOSITENESS
The thermometer is a two-way scale. On it you can read temperatures above zero and below zero. Example: In Alaska the temperature is below 160C. The temperature in Manila is above 250C. In keeping his accounts, a businessman has two-way scale in mind. He may have losses as well as gains.

OPPOSITENESS
East and West are opposites. North and South are opposites. In this game, Lawrence and Lorenzo always start at 0. Whichever way Lawrence goes, Lorenzo goes the opposite way. Lawrence went 4 steps to the left. So, Lorenzo went 4 steps to the right.

The situations above indicate oppositeness. Notice that to describe them fully, we need new kinds of numbers that would be capable of indicating the idea of oppositeness. This lead to the development of integers.

Give the opposite of each of the following situations.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gaining weight Going west Below sea level 2000 A.D. 20 degrees above zero 6. Earning money 7. Above average 8. Stepping forward 9. 5 seconds before blast off 10. 5 below zero

To describe oppositeness clearly, what man did was to indicate numbers in one direction to the natural numbers with the sign + before it, such as +7, +4, +10. These are called positive numbers. The opposite of positive numbers are called negative numbers. These are denoted by writing a - sign before the number, such as -1, -2, -3 and so on.

Represent with a signed number.


1. 5 degrees below zero 2. 120 meters above sea level 3. P5000 profit 4. 13 floors up 5. P3500 loss 6. 3 degrees above zero 7. 30 meters below sea level 8. P25 loss 9. 5 floors down 10. 13 lb gain

Read each number. 1. -9 2. +11 3. -6 4. 23 5. -270 6. -789 7. +55 8. -234 9. -1256 10. -567

Write a number for each integer.


1. Positive 35 2. Positive 15 3. Positive 33 4. Positive 37 5. Negative 97 6. Negative 17 7. Negative 39 8. Negative 20 9. Negative 80 10. Negative 57

DIRECTED NUMBERS
Numbers like +3 and -5 are read as positive three and negative five respectively. A number like +3 may mean in business a gain of 3 units. In this case, -5, would mean a loss of 5 Positive and negative numbers are called directed numbers since they indicate directions. They are also called signed numbers because of the + or sign written before them.

REPRESENTATION OF INTEGERS
Integers can be represented on a NUMBER LINE.

To represent integers on a line: 1. Draw a line segment. Mark a point on the line segment and label it as zero. 2. From zero, mark points at equal distances on both sides. 3. Label these points successively. 4. Put arrows on each end of the line segment to show that the numbers continue indefinitely in both directions.

Observe the number line. Did you notice the following? 1. there is no largest integer and no smaller integer. 2. An integer is greater than any integer to its left on the number line. Since 4 lies on the right of -3 on the number line, so 4>-2. Similarly, 0> -5 and -6>-8. 3. An integer is less than all those integers that lie to its right on the number line. Since -3 lies on the left of 7 on the number line, so -3<7. Similarly, -5<0 and -7<-3.

Draw a number line. Then show the numbers given below.


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. +5 -6 -9 +2 -3

Is Zero a Positive or a Negative Number?

Zero is the point in the number line from which we base the positive and negative directions. Zero is neither positive nor negative.

Absolute Value
It is the number of units that number is away from zero, without considering the directions. The absolute value of a number is represented by n. What is the absolute value of zero?

Name the absolute value of the following:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7 -55 2300 555 -1.003 -(-0.0001) --49

ADDITION OF INTEGERS

Similar Sign Opposite Sign

ADDING SIMILAR SIGN


EXAMPLES: 1. 2 + 4 2. 7 + 12 3. 15 + 90 4. 128 + 35 5. 813 + 725

ADDING SIMILAR SIGN


EXAMPLES: 1. -2 + -4 2. -7 + -2 3. -15 + -90 4. -128 + -35 5. -813 + -725 6. -16 + (-40) + (-18) + (-35)

TRY ME!!!!
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 4 + 5 + 6 + 13 4132 + 3471 -5 + (-31) + (-4) + (-8) 15 + 17 + 108 + 1003 + 8 -17 + (-205) + (-357) + (-801) -1234 + 0 5687 + (-9012) + (-3456)

ADDING DISSIMILAR SIGN


EXAMPLES: 1. -3 + 4 2. 7 + -12 3. -15 + (90) 4. -128 + (35) 5. 813 + -725 6. 305 + -432

TRY ME!!!
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. +3 + -2 -5 + -2 -8 + (+3) 9 + -3 +11 + -4 -12 + -3 -14 + 1

SUBTRACTION OF INTEGERS EXAMPLES: 1. +6 (+5) 2. -7 (-4) 3. +7 (-3) 4. -4 (-4) 5. -9 - +6

TRY ME!!!

1.+9 - +13 2.-9 (-7) 3.+5 (-5) 4.+6 (-3) 5.+7 - +2

FIND THE VALUE OF THE FOLLOWING:

1.+8 (-4) (+ ) (-4) + (+2) 2.-6 (-2) (-4) (+12) + (+3) 3.-8 (-3) + (+2) (-13) 4.-4 (-2) + (+1) (-5) 5.(+73) + (+41) + (-38) (-45)