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08 Jakarta, 6th July 2011

A number of long-term demographic studies have indicated that there is a longitudinal relationship between insomnia and depression.

Common Causes of Depression

Biology Genetics Gender Age

Health conditions

Changes and stressful events


Medications and substances

Criteria for the diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV-TR). At least 1+2 and 5 of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-weeks period :

1. Mood depressive

2. Interest

Energyy

Guilty

Concentration

Suicide Psychomotor disorders Sleep disorders

Appetite changes

People with insomnia have one or more of the following symptoms:

Difficulty falling asleep


Waking up often during the night and having trouble going back to sleep

Feeling tired upon waking

Waking up too early in the morning

Stress

Illness

Emotional or physical discomfort.

Environmental factors

Medications

Interferences in normal sleep schedule

Depression

early morning awakening s

an inability to fall back asleep

Insomnia and depression are two overlapping disorders.

New research shows that insomnia is not just a symptom of depression


Insomnia was typically seen as a symptom of depression

Depressed people suffer from insomnia

Risk of recurring depression is greater than that of patients who dont have insomnia.

So, insomnia may serve as a trigger for depression, but it also appears to perpetuate depression.

The latest findings have helped improve treatment strategies.

Treated with both an antidepressant and a sleep medication

than only with antidepressants.

A complex relationship exists between insomnia and depressive disorders. Treatment strategies should address both depressive symptoms and insomnia and should consider use of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies.

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Halverson JL. Background of Depression. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759overview. Accessed on June 12th 2011. Andreasen NC, Black DW. Introductory Textbook of Psychiatry. 3rd edition. London : American Psychiatric Publishing ; 2001. p 272-4. Doghramji K. Insomnia and Depression. Available at http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/501334. accessed on June 14th 2011. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Synopsos of Psychiatry. 9th edition. USA : Lippincott Williams and Wilkins ; 2002. p 534. Chang L. Common Causes of Depression. http://www.webmd.com/depression/recognizingdepression-symptoms/common-causes. accessed on June 12th 2011.

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Halverson JL. Depression Clinical Presentation. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759clinical#showall. Accessed on June 12th 2011. Chanin LR. An Overview of Insomnia. Available at http://www.webmd.com/sleepdisorders/guide/insomnia-symptoms-and-causes. accessed on 18th June 2011. Benbadis SR. Insomnia Clinical Presentation. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1187829overview. accessed on 19th 2011. Accessed on June 20th 2011. Benbadis SR. Insomnia Due to Mental Disorder. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1187829overview#showall. Accessed on June 20th 2011. Jaret P. Depression and Insomnia. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1187829overview. Accessed on June 20th 2011. McCall WP. Exploring the Relationship Between Insomnia and Depression Insomnia as a Precursor of Depression. Available at http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/581779_2. Accessed on June 2oth 2011.