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SILABUS METODOLOGI RISET

1. Building Block of Science & Research Process 2. Theoretical Framework, Hyphothesis & Analysis 3. Research design 4. Writing 5. Regression Analysis 6. Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, MDS + Delivery Discussion Material 7. Discussion & Critics 8. Final Test Proposal Research Paper

Metodologi Penelitian
Oleh : DR.RORIM PANDAY,MT

Desember 2006

The building block of science


Observation Identification Of problem area

Refinement of Theory (pure research) Or Implementation (applied research)

Theoretical framework or Network of Associations

Hypoteses Interpretation of data Constructs Concept Operational definitions Data collection

Analysis Of Data

Research Design

The research process for basic and applied research


OBSERVATION
Broad area Of research interest identified

PROBLEM DEFINITION
Research problem delineated

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Variables clearly identified and labeled

GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

PRELIMINARY DATA GATHERING


Interviewing Literature survey

DEDUCTION Hypotheses substantiated? Research question answered?

DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION

TAHAPAN PENELITIAN
Dalam melakukan riset ada beberapa komponen yang harus diperhatikan yaitu : 1. Menentukan problem secara tepat dari suatu fenomena yang akan diteliti. 2. Menentukan tujuan dari riset/ penelitian tersebut secara tepat dan spesifik

3. Menetapkan beberapa kegunaan dari riset/ penelitian tersebut


4. Membahas literatur yang mengarah kepada penelitian / riset yang akan dilakukan dan mendukung pd penelitian. 5. Menentukan metode riset / metodologi riset yang tepat untuk memecahkan problem yang sudah diidentifikasikan

6. Melakukan analisa berdasarkan dari data yang telah

diolah dengan menggunakan suatu metode statistik multivariat tertentu. Analisa yang dilakukan antara lain : - Analisa mengenai validasi data - Analisa mengenai validasi model - Kesimpulan dari model yang diperoleh.
7. Membuat suatu kesimpulan berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh dengan cara yang sistematis. 8. Memberikan saran yang tepat

PROBLEM/ PERMASALAHAN
KESENJANGAN ANTARA APA YANG SEHARUSNYA
DENGAN APA YANG ADA DALAM KENYATAAN KESENJANGAN ANTARA APA YANG DIPERLUKAN DENGAN APA YANG TERSEDIA

ANTARA HARAPAN DAN PENCAPAIAN


MASALAH PENELITIAN HARUS MENCERMINKAN KEBUTUHAN YANG DIRASAKAN BERUPA FAKTA, TIDAK BOLEH BERSIFAT HIPOTESIS MASALAH BISA MENGARAH ADANYA HIPOPTESIS YANG BERARTI DAN DAPAT DIUJI MASALAH HARUS RELEVAN DAN DAPAT DIKELOLA

TUJUAN PENELITIAN
Memecahkan masalah / problem yang telah dirumuskan , mencari solusi
Membuktikan hipotesa

Melakukan optimasi dari fenomena yang ada


Membuat MODEL

Schematic diagram of theoretical framework


Age
Opportunity for advancement Job satisfaction Years in organization

KERANGKA PEMIKIRAN

Organizational Commitment
Dependent Variable

Gender
Independent variables

Diagram of the relationships among the three variables

KERANGKA PEMIKIRAN

Workforce diversity
Independent Variable

Organizational Effectiveness
Dependent Variable

Managerial Expertise

Moderating Variable

Schematic diagram of theoretical framework including an intervening variable

Communication among cockpit members

Communication between ground control and cockpit Decentralization


Nervousness And diffidence

Air- safety Violations

Training of Cockpit crew

Independent Variable

Intervening Variable

Dependent Variable

Schematic diagram of theoretical framework including a moderating variable

Communication among cockpit members

Communication between ground control and cockpit Decentralization Training

Air- safety Violations

Independent Variable

Moderating Variable

Dependent Variable

Diagram of the relationships among independent, intervening, moderating and dependent variable

Workforce diversity
Independent Variable

Creative Synergy
Intervening Variable

Organizational Effectiveness
Dependent Variable

Managerial Expertise

Moderating Variable

HYPOTHESIS /Hipotesis
Ho : Penjualan tidak dipengaruhi oleh harga barang, harga barang pesaing, kualitas, cita rasa, pendapatan masyarakat, dan promosi
Ha : Penjualan dipengaruhi oleh harga barang, harga barang pesaing, kualitas, cita rasa, pendapatan masyarakat, dan promosi

CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS

RESEARCH DESIGN
TYPE OF RESEARCH CAUSAL RESEARCH
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH EXPLORATION RESEARCH

FIELD RESEARCH
LABORATORY STUDY / EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

SAMPLING --> GROUP / INDIVIDUAL TIME SERIES / CROSS SECTION

Didalam metodologi riset/ disain riset ini harus ditentukan :


1. Variabel-variabel yang digunakan untuk mengungkapkan permasalahan yang akan dipecahkan/ menjawab dari problem yang dihadapi 2. Menentukan rangkaian dari variabel-variabel tersebut menurut aturan statistik tertentu / model statistik tertentu 3. Membuat suatu atau beberapa hipotesa. 4. Menentukan cara mengukur variabel-variabel tersebut 5. Menentukan metode untuk mendapatkan ukuran dari variabel yang ditetapkan. Dalam hal ini menggunakan data primer atau sekunder.

Didalam metodologi riset/ disain riset ini harus ditentukan (lanjutan) :


6. Jika menggunakan data primer, bagaimana membuat kuesioner/ inter view guide untuk dapat mengukur dari variabel yang telah ditetapkan. 7. Menentukan responden dan sample yang tepat 8. Menentukan jumlah sampel yang tepat untuk riset tersebut 9. Menentukan metode sampling yang tepat 10.Menentukan syarat validasi dari data yang diperoleh apakah memenuhi suatu syarat reliabilitas tertentu 11.Menentukan validasi dari model yang di dapatkan

PENGOLAHAN & ANALISIS

MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUE ANALYSIS INTER-DEPENDENCE MODEL


FACTOR - ANALYSIS
COMP-1 COMP-2 COMP-3 COMP-4

DEPENDENCE MODEL REGRESSION : Y = a1 + b1X1 + . . . + bnXn


metric / non metrik

Metric

ANOVA/MANOVA : Y = a1 + b1X1 + . . . + bnXn


non metric

X1 X2 X3 X4 .... Xn

0.875 0.211 0.105 0.321 ......... 0.001

0.221 0.115 0.785 0.211 0.150 0.007 0.012 0.880 ......... ......... 0.450 0.072

0.102 0.111 0.879 0.005 ........ 0.903

Metric

CLUSTER ANALYSIS A B C D E F

DISCRIMINANT : Y = a1 + b1X1 + . . . + bnXn


metric

dendogram
MUlTI-DIMENSIONAL SCALLING

non metric

A B E F D C

PERCEPTUAL-MAP

PROSES PENGUJIAN HIPOTESIS


PERUMUSAN MASALAH

HIPOTESIS Ho DAN Ha

PILIH PENGUJIAN YANG RELEVAN & DISTRIBUSI

TENTUKAN TINGKAT KEPERCAYAAN

HITUNG NILAI KRITIS (CRITICAL VALUE= CV)

HITUNG DERAJAT KEBEBASAN

HITUNG PENGUJIAN STATISTIK YANG RELEVAN

BANDINGKAN PENGUJIAN STATISTIK & NILAI KRITIS (CV)

APAKAH PENGUJIAN STATISTIK ADA DALAM WILAYAH KRITIS

TERIMA Ho

TOLAK Ho

Daerah penerimaan dan penolakan tingkat kepercayaan 95% (=0.05)

2,5% Rejected area

95% Accepted Area

2,5% Rejected area

T- table

T- table

Daerah penerimaan dan penolakan tingkat kepercayaan 99% (=0.01)

0,5% Rejected area

99% Accepted Area

0,5% Rejected area

T- table

T- table

CONCEPTUAL & OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK


CONCEPTUAL
PENJUALAN OPERATIONAL
PENJUALAN HARGA BARANG HARGA BARANG PESAING KUALITAS CIRA RASA PENDAPATAN MASYARAKAT PROMOSI RUPIAH RUPIAH RUPIAH SKALA SKALA RUPIAH / SKALA RUPIAH

4P

SAMPLING
PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1. Sampling acak sederhana (Simple random sampling)

2. Sampling acak sistematik (Systematic random sampling)


3. Sampling acak berlapis (Stratified sampling) NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING 1. Accidental Sampling : bersifat subjektif 2. Kuota Sampling : (mirip sampling acak berlapis, akan tetapi setiap lapisan diberi jatah / kuota) 3. Purposive sampling : pengambilan sampel dengan sengaja apabila dianggap cukup mewakili

SKALA PENGUKUR
1. Nominal Scale : - indicate no order - no distance relationship - no arithmatic origin - Just count 2. Ordinal Scale : -a>b>c - indicate order - no distance relationship - no arithmatic origin
Your gender: --- Male --- Female
Your Department: --- Production --- Sales --- Accounting --- Finance

Rank ----- Jakarta ---- Bandung ---- Bogor ---- Medan ---- Surabaya

SKALA PENGUKUR
3. Interval Scale : - indicate order - distance - have arithmatic origin 4. Ratio Scale : - indicate order - distance - have absolute zero origin
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree

How many member in this organization? How many dollar cost of production?

How many student in your class?

PENGUMPULAN DATA PENGOLAHAN DATA. ANALISIS


KUESIONER

INTERVIEW DATA SEKUNDER TABULASI / GAMBAR / DIAGRAM PENGOLAHAN DATA ANALISIS

Problem statement / Perumusan Masalah


What factors have the greatest influence on absenteeism?

Variables / Variabel

CONTOH

Age, education, working conditions, marital status, type of job

Sample
67 mine workers from the XYZ Mine co, illnois. Mean age = 35; all males

Data collection / Pengumpulan Data


All 67 employees were interviewed by three researchers within a period of 3 months inside the mine

Data Analysis / Analisis data


Correlational and multiple regression analysis used

Results / Hasil
Working condition influenced absenteeism the most especially toxic dust and explosions. None of the other variables was significantly related to absenteeism.

Conclusions / Kesimpulan
Chemical that would absorb the toxic dust and mechanism for explosion danger warning should substantially reduce absenteeism

CONTOH-CONTOH PENGGUNAAN MULTIVARIAT

SEGMENTASI ---> CLUSTER, DISKRIMINAN, FACTOR ANALISIS POSITIONING ---> MDS, DISKRIMINAN, CLUSTER DIFFERENSIASI ---> DISKRIMINAN, MANOVA SWOT ---> MUTIPLE REGRESI, FACTOR ANALYSIS PREDIKSI --> MULTIPLE REGRESI, DISKRIMINAN, MDS BAURAN PEMASARAN --> MULTIPLE REGRESI, FACTOR ANALISIS,ANOVA/MANOVA REKRUITMEN ---> DISKRIMINAN PRODUKTIVITAS ---> REGRESI

Tata cara penulisan


Bab-1 Pendahuluan
1.1. Latar Belakang 1.2. Perumusan Masalah 1.3. Tujuan penelitian 1.4. Batasan Penelitian 1.5. M etodologi Penelitian 1.6. Sistematika (Penulisan)

Tata cara penulisan


Bab-2 Landasan Teori 2.1.. 2.2.. Bab-3 Pelaksanaan Penelitian Bab-4. Analisa dan Diskusi Bab-5. Kesimpulan dan Saran Lampiran

Tata cara penulisan

Bab-1

Bab-2

Bab-3

Bab-4

Bab-5

Landasan Teori
1. Journal Internet Thesis/ Disertasi

CONTOH :
1. PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT MODEL FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN INDONESIA (20022003) 2. Factor Analysis Of Service Quality Argo Gede Train As a Tool For Improving the Service (2000) 3. Analisis Variabel Time Robber Di Lingkungan Manajemen Proyek Ditinjau dari Manajer Proyek (2001) 4. Profil 20 Sekolah Menengah Atas di Jakarta dan Bogor (2004)
5. ANALYSIS THE IMPACT OF MONETARY VARIABLES TO THE STOCK PRICES INDEX INDUSTRIES AT JAKARTA STOCK EXCHANGE (CASE STUDY JULY 1997 TO OCTOBER 1998) 6. Evaluasi Keterampilan Dan Kompetensi Tenaga Ahli Geodesi Antara Hasil Pendidikan dan Kebutuhan Tempat Kerja.(Laporan Penelitian thn 2000) 7. Tinjauan Strategi Di dalam Industri Survei dan pemetaan (1995)

KATCO menetapkan variabel tingkat penggunaan produksi (Usage level) sebagai X9. Variabel X1 sampai dengan X7 disebut sebagai variabel independent, sedangan X9 ditentukan sebagai variabel dependen.

Untuk data tingkat penggunaan produksi, responden menentukan dalam bentuk persentase 40% misalnya atau 55% dan sebagainya. Hasil dari 100 responden setelah diukur, ditabulasi

X9 = F (X1,X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7)

Cor relations price f lexibility (x3) .559 .509 -.487 1.000 -.116 .067 -.034 -.448 .000 .000 .000 . .125 .255 .367 .000 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (1-tailed)

us age level (x9) us age lev el (x 9) 1.000 delivery s peed .676 (x1) price level (x2) .082 price f lexibility .559 (x3) manuf ac turer's .224 image (x4) service (x5) .701 salesf orc e .256 image (x6) produc t quality -.192 (x7) us age lev el (x 9) . delivery s peed .000 (x1) price level (x2) .209 price f lexibility .000 (x3) manuf ac turer's .012 image (x4) service (x5) .000 salesf orc e .005 image (x6) produc t quality .028 (x7) us age lev el (x 9) 100 delivery s peed 100 (x1) price level (x2) 100 price f lexibility 100 (x3) manuf ac turer's 100 image (x4) service (x5) 100 salesf orc e 100 image (x6) produc t quality 100 (x7)

delivery speed (x1) .676 1.000 -.349 .509 .050 .612 .077 -.483 .000 . .000 .000 .309 .000 .223 .000 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

price level (x2) .082 -.349 1.000 -.487 .272 .513 .186 .470 .209 .000 . .000 .003 .000 .032 .000 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

manuf ac turer's image (x4) .224 .050 .272 -.116 1.000 .299 .788 .200 .012 .309 .003 .125 . .001 .000 .023 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

service (x5) .701 .612 .513 .067 .299 1.000 .241 -.055 .000 .000 .000 .255 .001 . .008 .293 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

salesf orc e produc t image (x6) quality (x7) .256 -.192 .077 .186 -.034 .788 .241 1.000 .177 .005 .223 .032 .367 .000 .008 . .039 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 -.483 .470 -.448 .200 -.055 .177 1.000 .028 .000 .000 .000 .023 .293 .039 . 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

Des criptive Statistics Std. Deviation 8.989 1.387 .751 .771

Mean us age level (x9) price f lexibility (x3) service (x5) salesf orc e image (x 6) 46.100 7.894 2.916 2.665

N 100 100 100 100

Cor relations price f lexibility (x3) .559 1.000 .067 -.034 .000 . .255 .367 100 100 100 100

us age level (x9) Pearson Correlation us age level (x9) price f lexibility (x3) service (x5) salesf orc e image (x6) us age level (x9) price f lexibility (x3) service (x5) salesf orc e image (x6) us age level (x9) price f lexibility (x3) service (x5) salesf orc e image (x6) 1.000 .559 .701 .256 . .000 .000 .005 100 100 100 100

service (x5) .701 .067 1.000 .241 .000 .255 . .008 100 100 100 100

salesf orc e image (x6) .256 -.034 .241 1.000 .005 .367 .008 . 100 100 100 100

Sig. (1-tailed)

V ariables Entere d/Re m ovebd V ariables V ariables Entered Remov ed salesf orc e image (x6), price . f lexibility (x3), service a (x5)

Model 1

Method

Enter

a. A ll requested v ariables entered. b. Dependent V ariable: usage level (x9)

b Model Summ ary

Model 1

R R Square .877 a .768

Adjusted R Square .761

Std. Error of the Estimate 4.394

Change Statistics R Square Change .768 F Change 106.115 df1 3 df2 96 Sig. F Change .000 Durbin-Watson 1.910

a. Predictors: (Constant), salesforce image (x6), price flexibility (x3), service (x5) b. Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)

ANOVAb Sum of Squares 6145.700 1853.300 7999.000 Mean Square 2048.567 19.305

Model 1

df 3 96 99

Regression Residual Total

F 106.115

Sig. .000 a

a. Predictors: (Constant), sales f orce image (x 6), pric e f lex ibility (x3), serv ic e (x5) b. Dependent Variable: usage level (x 9)

a Coefficients

Unstandardiz ed Coefficients Model 1 B Std. Error -6.520 3.247 3.376 7.621 1.406 .320 .607 .591

Standardi zed Coefficien ts Beta t -2.008 10.562 12.547 2.378 Sig. .047 .000 .000 .019

(Constant) price fle xibility (x3) service (x5) sale sforce image (x6)

95% Confidence In terval for B Correlatio ns Low er Upper Bound Bound Zero-order Partial -12.965 -.075 2.742 6.416 .232 4.010 8.827 2.579 .559 .701 .256 .733 .788 .236

Collin earity Statistics Part Tole rance VIF

.521 .637 .121

.519 .616 .117

.993 .936 .939

1.007 1.068 1.064

a. Dependent Varia ble : usage le vel (x9)

X9 = - 6.520 + 3.376 X3 + 7.621 X5 + 1.406 X6

a Coe fficient Corre lations

Model 1

salesf orc e image (x 6) Correlations salesf orc e 1.000 image (x 6) price f lexibility .052 (x3) service (x5) -.244 salesf orc e .349 image (x 6) price f lexibility 9.824E-03 (x3) service (x5) -8.752E-02

price f lexibility (x3) .052 1.000 -.077 9.824E-03 .102 -1.50E-02

service (x5) -.244 -.077 1.000 -8.75E-02 -1.50E-02 .369

Covariances

a. Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)

a Colline arity Diagnostics

Model 1

Dimension 1 2 3 4

Eigenvalue 3.882 5.997E-02 4.541E-02 1.237E-02

Condition Index 1.000 8.046 9.246 17.719

(Cons tant) .00 .01 .02 .97

Varianc e Proportions price f lexibility service (x3) (x5) .00 .00 .11 .02 .14 .91 .75 .07

salesf orc e image (x6) .00 .85 .04 .10

a. Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)

a Res iduals Statistics

Minimum Predicted Value Residual Std. Predicted Value Std. Residual 23.373 -12.552 -2.885 -2.857

Max imum 60.592 7.574 1.839 1.724

Mean 46.100 2.167E-15 .000 .000

Std. Deviation 7.879 4.327 1.000 .985

N 100 100 100 100

a. Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)

Histogram Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)


16 14 12 10 8 6

Frequency

4 2 0

Std. Dev = .98 Mean = 0.00 N = 100.00

Regression Standardized Residual

75 1. 0 5 1. 5 2 1. 0 0 1. 5 .7 0 .5 5 .2 00 0. 5 -.2 0 -.5 5 0 -.7 .0 -1 5 .2 -1 0 .5 -1 5 .7 -1 0 .0 -2 5 .2 -2 0 .5 -2 5 .7 -2

Normal P-P Plot of Regression Standardized Re Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)
1.00

.75

Expected Cum Prob

.50

.25

0.00 0.00 .25 .50 .75 1.00

Observ ed Cum Prob

Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)


20 20

Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)

10 10

0 0

usage level (x9)

-10

usage level (x9)

-10

-20 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

-20 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

price f lexibility (x3)

serv ice (x5)

Partial Regression Plot Dependent Variable: usage level (x9)


10

usage level (x9)

-10

-20 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -.5 0.0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0

salesf orce image (x6)

Y= a+bX

Des cr iptive Statis tics Std. Deviation 6.99 1.83

SA LES A DVER

Mean 50.00 12.00

N 10 10

Cor relations SALES 1.000 .923 . .000 10 10 ADVER .923 1.000 .000 . 10 10

Pears on Correlation Sig. (1-tailed) N

SALES ADVER SALES ADVER SALES ADVER

b M ode l Sum m ary

Model 1

Change Statistics Std. Error A djusted of the R Square R R Square R Square Estimate Change F Change df 1 df 2 a .923 .851 .833 2.86 .851 45.768 1 8

Sig. F Change Durbin-Watson .000 1.621

a. Predictors: (Constant), A DVER b. Dependent V ariable: SA LES

ANOVAb Sum of Squares 374.533 65.467 440.000 Mean Square 374.533 8.183

Model 1

df 1 8 9

Regress ion Residual Total

F 45.768

Sig. .000 a

a. Predictors: (Cons tant), ADVER b. Dependent Variable: SALES

a Coe fficients

Standardi zed Unstandardized Coef ficien Coef ficients ts Model 1 B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 7.600 6.332 ADV ER 3.533 .522 .923 t 1.200 6.765

95% Conf idence Interval f or B Correlations Collinearity Statistics Low er Upper Sig. Bound BoundZero-orderPartial Part Tolerance VIF .264 -7.002 22.202 .000 2.329 4.738 .923 .923 .923 1.000 1.000

a.Dependent Variable: SA LES

a Collinearity Diagnostics

Model 1

Dimension 1 2

Eigenvalue 1.990 1.026E-02

Condition Index 1.000 13.928

Variance Proportions (Constant) ADVER .01 .01 .99 .99

a. Dependent Variable: SALES


a Res iduals Statis tics

Minimum Predicted Value Residual Std. Predicted Value Std. Residual 39.40 -4.47 -1.643 -1.561

Max imum 60.60 4.47 1.643 1.561

Mean 50.00 .00 .000 .000

Std. Deviation 6.45 2.70 1.000 .943

N 10 10 10 10

a. Dependent Variable: SALES

a Rotated Com ponent M atrix

Component 1 delivery speed -.787 (x1) price lev el (x 2) .714 price f lex ibility -.804 (x3) manuf ac turer's .102 image (x 4) salesf orc e 2.537E-02 image (x 6) product quality .764 (x7) 2 .194 .266 -1.06E-02 .933 .934 .179

Ex traction Method: Principal Component A naly sis . Rotation Method: V arimax w ith Kaiser Normaliz ation. a. Rotation converged in 3 iterations .

Rotated Component Matriax Component 4 5 .189 .856 -6.80E-02 4. 546E-03 .117 -3.83E-02 -6.10E-02 1. 325E-02 -5.10E-02 .570 .299 .564 -. 159 5. 496E-02 9. 483E-02 .836 .142 .256 -2.67E-02 -1.98E-02 -1.64E-02 -8.33E-02 4. 921E-02 -. 139 -1.16E-02 .279 1. 605E-02 .674 .353 9. 164E-02 .116 .145 -9.47E-02 .173

iklan harga saluran dis tribusi mutu dis ain selera pasar as ses soris suku cadang pelay anan serv is mesin int erior purna jual pilihan warna perawat an mesin merek harga suku cadang keny amanan

1 .104 7. 893E-02 1. 855E-02 .680 -3.41E-02 .829 3. 797E-02 -. 171 .160 .295 -6.53E-02 .294 .666 2. 188E-02 .263 -. 141 9. 868E-02

2 -. 162 8. 013E-02 5. 000E-02 -1.36E-02 .125 .106 .781 6. 724E-03 .123 -. 501 2. 296E-02 .524 -. 390 .108 .156 .642 9. 358E-02

3 -4.89E-02 .800 -2.37E-02 .416 1. 419E-03 6. 443E-03 8. 654E-02 .314 9. 716E-02 .100 .487 -6.54E-02 -7.84E-03 -9.50E-02 .644 .420 -8.17E-02

6 5. 230E-02 -. 278 1. 318E-02 -3.77E-02 6. 597E-02 -3.51E-02 8. 263E-02 .427 -. 399 .103 .257 -. 119 .241 -. 145 .163 .136 .883

7 -3.59E-02 2. 640E-02 -4.14E-02 .131 .894 -. 109 .291 .346 .552 -5.50E-02 2. 670E-02 -. 250 6. 041E-02 -5.67E-02 1. 511E-02 -1.09E-02 -7.68E-04

8 -1.78E-02 -. 182 .896 .111 -8.03E-02 7. 662E-03 7. 472E-02 5. 938E-02 .277 -. 307 -5.89E-02 -. 466 -. 195 .189 .232 -6.24E-02 3. 808E-02

Extrac tion Met hod: Principal Component Analy sis . Rotat ion Met hod: Varimax wit h Kais er Normalization. a. Rotat ion conv erged in 14 iterat ions .

Canonical Dis criminant Function Coefficie nts Func tion 1 .532 1.150 .798 .167 -14.876

BIOLOGI CHEMIC FISIC MATH (Constant)

Uns tandardiz ed coef f icients

Functions at Group Ce ntroids Func tion 1 1.774 -1.774

CODE 1 2

Uns tandardized canonical disc riminant f unctions evaluated at group means