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EARLY DEVELOPMENT in MAMMALS

Overview of Development
Development is the successive process of systematic gene-directed changes throughout an organisms life cycle -Can be divided into four subprocesses: -Growth (cell division) -Differentiation -Pattern formation -Morphogenesis

Principles of Embryonic Development

Fertilization results in embryonic development

zygote

and

triggers

Plasma membrane

Middle piece

Neck

Head

Tail

Mitochondrion Mitochondrion (spiral (spiral shape) shape) Nucleus Acrosome

The shape of a human sperm cell is adapted to its function

In

mammals, fertilization occurs in the oviduct where sperm encounters and the fuses with the oocyte, as a result the oocyte nucleus which had been arrested metafase2, completes meiosis and two parenteral pronuclei fuse to form the diploid zygotic nucleus. Cleavage starts
Fertilization of ovum

Oviduct

Ovary

Secondary oocyte Ovulation

Blastocyst (implanted) Endometrium

Uterus

The process of fertilization Only one of these sperm will penetrate this human egg cell to initiate fertilization Fertilization is the union of a sperm and an egg to form a diploid zygote

1 The sperm
approaches the egg SPERM

2 The sperms
acrosomal enzymes digest the eggs jelly 3 Proteins on the coat sperm head bind to egg receptors

4 The plasma membranes


of sperm and egg fuse Sperm head Nucleus Acrosome Acrosomal Plasma membrane enzymes Receptor protein molecules Plasma membrane Vitelline layer Cytoplasm Sperm nucleus Egg nucleus

5 The sperm

nucleus enters the egg cytoplasm

6 A

fertilization envelope forms

Jelly coat

EGG CELL

7 The nuclei

of sperm and egg fuse

Zygote nucleus

Cell Division
Cleavage

is the first major phase of embryonic development


It is the rapid succession of cell divisions It creates a multicellular embryo from the zygote It partitions the multicellular embryo into developmental regions

Cell Division
After fertilization, the diploid zygote undergoes a period of rapid mitotic divisions is called cleavage -Controlled by cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) During cleavage, the zygote is divided into smaller & smaller cells called blastomeres

Cell Division
Blastomeres are nondifferentiated and can give rise to any tissue. Stem cells are set aside and will continue to divide while remaining undifferentiated. -Tissue-specific: can give rise to only one tissue -Pluripotent: can give rise to multiple different cell types (Blastocyst-inner cell mass) -Totipotent: can give rise to any cell type (Morula stage )

Cleave in mammals continues for 5-6 days producing a ball of cells, the blastocyst -Consists of: -Outer layer= Forms the placenta (Trophoblast cell that secretes enzymes to enable the blastocyst to implant in the uterine wall)

ENDOMETRIUM Inner cell mass

Cavity

Trophoblast

-Inner cell mass = Forms the embryo -Source of embryonic stem cells (ES cells)

The ICM is marked here with the antibody stain against Oct4 ICM

Trophoblast cell

Cell Division

Once sperm and egg cell have joined, cell cleavage produces a blastocyst. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst develops into the human embryo.

Embryonic stem-cell culture

Inner cell mass Egg

Sperm

Blastocyst

Embryo

Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are isolated from the inner cell mass

Cell Differentiation
A human body contains more than 210 major types of differentiated cells Cell determination commits a cell to a particular developmental pathway -Can only be seen by experiment -Cells are moved to a different location in the embryo -If they develop according to their new position, they are not determined

Cell Differentiation
Cells initiate developmental changes by using transcriptional factors to change patterns of gene expression Cells become committed to follow a particular developmental pathway in one of two ways: 1) via differential inheritance of cytoplasmic determinants 2) via cell-cell interactions

Gastrulation produces a threelayered embryo


Gastrulation

is the second major phase of embryonic development and produces a three-layered embryo

It adds more cells to the embryo It sorts all cells into three distinct cell layers The embryo is transformed from the blastula into the gastrula

The three layers produced in gastrulation


Amniotic Ectoderm, the outer cavity layer Endoderm, an embryonic digestive Mesoderm tract cells Mesoderm, which partly fills the space between the ectoderm and endoderm Amnion

Chorion

Yolk sac

Organs start to form after gastrulation

Embryonic tissue layers begin to differentiate into specific tissues and organ systems after gastrulation.

Meanwhile, the four embryonic membranes develop into Amniotic cavity Amnion Amnion Chorion Mesoderm Chorion Yolk sac cells Allantois
Yolk sac

The embryo floats in the fluid-filled amniotic cavity, while the chorion and embryonic mesoderm form the embryos part of the placenta
Placenta Mothers blood vessels Amniotic cavity Amnion Embryo Chorion

Functions of the chorion: 1. Provide nutrients and O2 to the fetus 2. Secrete hormones into the mother to help retain the fetus 3. Repress the mothers immune response to prevent rejection of the fetus
The placentas chorionic villi absorb food and oxygen from the mothers blood

Allantois Yolk sac

Chorionic villi

Embryonic induction initiates organ formation


Induction

is the mechanism by which one group of cells influences the development of tissues and organs from ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm

Adjacent cells and cell layers use chemical signals to influence differentiation Chemical signals turn on a set of genes whose expression makes the receiving cells differentiate into a specific tissue

Pattern formation organizes the animal body


Pattern

formation is the emergence of a body form with structures in their correct relative positions

It involves the response of genes to spatial variations of chemicals in the embryo

Changes in cell division, cell shape, cell migration, and programmed cell death give form to the developing animal
Ectoderm

Tissues and organs take shape in a developing embryo as a result of


cell division cell shape changes cell migration

programmed cell death (apoptosis)

Cell suicide

Dead cell engulfed and digested by adjacent cell

Morphogenesis
Cell division -The orientation of the mitotic spindle determines the plane of cell division in eukaryotic cells -If spindle is centrally located, two equal-sized daughter cells will result -If spindle is off to one side, two unequal daughter cells will result

Morphogenesis
Cell shape and size -In animals, cell differentiation is accomplished by profound changes in cell size and shape -Nerve cells develop long processes called axons -Skeletal muscles cells are large and multinucleated

Morphogenesis
Cell death -Necrosis is accidental cell death -Apoptosis is programmed cell death -Is required for normal development in all animals -Death program pathway consists of: -Activator, inhibitor and apoptotic protease

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Organism

Caenorhabditis elegans

Mammalian Cell

Inhibitor:

CED-9

Inhibitor

Bcl-2

Activator:

CED-4

Apaf1

Apoptotic Protease:

CED-3

Caspase-8 or -9

Inhibition Activation

Apoptosis

Apoptosis

a.

b.

Morphogenesis
Cell migration -Cell movement involves both adhesion and loss of adhesion between cells and substrate -Cell-to-cell interactions are often mediated through cadherins -Cell-to-substrate interactions often involve complexes between integrins and the extracellular matrix (ECM)

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