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Design for

Manufacture and
Assembly (DFMA)
BMF 4723
Engr. Wan Sharuzi Hj Wan
Harun
sharuzi@ump.edu.my
0197799152
Introduction
• Is a combination between DFM & DFA

DFM Design for Manufacture


Manufacturing of individual
component parts of a product or
assembly

DFA Design for Assembly


Addition or joining of parts to
form a complete product
DFM?
• The design for ease of manufacture
of the collection of parts that will
form the product after assembly.
DFA?
• The design of the product for ease of
assembly.
Where to apply?
1. To the design team in simplifying
the product structure, to reduce
manufacturing and assembly costs,
and to quantify the improvements
by using concurrent engineering
approaches.
2. As a tool for benchmarking to study
competitor’s products.
3. As a should-cost tool to help
negotiate suppliers contracts.
If the cost of makingDFMA a change to a product
during its conceptual design phase is RM1K,
Then the cost
• Intended of makingthe
to increase the awareness
same change
after the drawings are released
of engineering design team to the and the initial
prototype are fabricated is approximately
need for concurrent product and
RM10K,
process development.
If this same change is not applied until the
• production
Design process run hasisstarted,
wherethe about
cost80%
impact
of product’s total costs are
will be approximately RM100K,
determined.
If the need for the design change is not
• The cost of making
recognized after thechanges
product hasto been
a
product as
purchased, theittotal
progresses through
cost will be approx.the
1000
product
times more development process design
than during conceptual
increases by orders review.
of magnitude at
The Six Basic
Considerations
The Ten Commandments
The Ten Commandments
1. Simplicity
How to keep part count
minimum?
• Key principles revolve around THREE
questions:
If all answers is NO

The part’s
function can be
combined with
another existing
part
The effects of reduced part
counts?
Why do we need fastener?
Why fasteners should be
minimized?
PROTOTYPE DESIGNS MAY
REQUIRE ADDITTIONAL
FASTENERS AND
INTERFACES TO TEST
VARIOUS DESIGN OR
COMPONENT OPTIONS

PRODUCTION DESIGN
SHOULD BE STRIPPED OF
ANY EXCESSIVE
FASTENERS
Minimum Orientations
• Guiding principle are:
– To create a design that can be easily
assembled with minimum use of special
tooling.
– To always use gravity to aid you in
assembly.
• Minimizing number of fasteners will
obviously headed for minimizing
number of orientations needed.
Multifunctional Parts
• Is a primary method of reducing the
total parts count.
• Thus, enhancing design simplicity.
Modular Subassemblies
• Good design method to predesigned for
continuous product improvement
through block upgrades.
• Promote similar product line
enhancements over time.
• As new technology moves into practice
and becomes cost effective, modular
subassemblies can be easily replaced
to provide expanded capabilities, higher
processing speeds, market
competitiveness or more economical
substitutions.
However,
• It may increase the total part count
of the original product.
• Positive trade-off could yet be
achieved by the added ease and
speed of implementing
improvements for many products or
product families.
1. Use Standard Materials
Components and Designs
• Its describe the sixth commandment
– STANDARDIZE
• Design reuse – Most cost-effective
method
• By defining company-or product
family-related standard materials,
standard parts, specific design
process standards. – Reduce cost
and TTM, while reliability will be
maximized.
• The key element of standardization;
– Establish the discipline within the
organization to keep the standards
current and readily available to the PD
team.
– Enforcing their effective and consistent
use.
1. Specify Tolerances
• Embodied in seventh commandment
– Avoid Difficult component.
• It is based on process capability not
from design engineer’s affinity.
• CE approaches in PD team is the
most effective way to achieve. –
Design Engr.@Manu. Engr.
1. Use of Common Materials
• The fifth design consideration – use
of the materials most processed.
• Materials that are commonly
machined or processed should be the
first choice for various components.
• Exotic or state-of-the-art processes
or materials should be avoided.
• To preclude extended process
activities – C↑,TTM↑, Quality↓, &
Reliability↓
1. CE Collaboration
• The sixth design consideration.
• Its essential for the design team to
include cross-functional personnel
such as;
– Manufacturing engineers
– Quality engineers
– Procurement specialists
• To ensure all the appropriate design
trade-offs are properly analyzed and
selected.
• The traditional ‘Over-the-wall’
approach is guaranteed to produce
product attributes that contribute to
Higher production cost & Longer
TTM.
The Final Three Design
Commandment
True learning is based on
discovery by mentoring rather
than the transmission of
knowledge
(John Dewey)