Anda di halaman 1dari 26

Ecosystem

A community of living organisms interacting with each other and with the non-living environment

Habitat
species population Community niche

The natural environment in which an organism lives and get their food, shelter, living space, and breeding sites.

Consists of a group of organisms that look alike and have similar characteristics, share the same ecological niche and are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. Consists of a group of organisms of the same species living in the same habitat at the same time. A naturally occurring collection of plant and animal species living within a defined area in and ecosystem

The function of an organism or the role plays in an ecosystem.

Colonisation and Succession

Human activities (e.g. forest clearing, tin mining and natural phenomena (e.g. forest fires, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions) constantly reform our environment, leaving behind bare rocks, sand, earth, or ashes with no life.
Colonisation The process whereby living organisms move into this newly formed area which is completely devoid of life.

Bare ground

Pioneer species

Succesor species

Climax community

Succession

The gradual process where one community changes its environment so that it is replaced by another community.

Colonisation & Succession in Mangrove Swamps (Paya Bakau)


Mangrove swamps found in tropical regions where fresh water meets salt water. They have a bad environment for normal plants. soft muddy soil and strong coastal wind high concentration of salt very low levels of oxygen Exposed to high intensity of sunlight

Bad condition of Mangrove Swamps

Problems faced by mangroves trees

Adaptations

Soft muddy soil, strong coastal winds High concentration of salt Very low levels of oxygen

Support problem
Hypertonic to root cells, problem in seeds germination. Root breathing problem in anaerobic condition

Exposed to intensity of sunlight

The rate of transpiration increase caused water loss

Avicennia sp.

Succulent leaves

Long underground cable roots with pneumatophore (breathing root)

Sonneratia sp.

Rhizophora sp.

Prop roots of Rhizophora sp.

Viviparous seedlings which able to germinate while still being attach to the parent tree.

Bruguiera sp.

Buttress root of Bruguiera sp.

Viviparous seedlings and succulent leaves

Animation

Zonation of Mangrove Swamps

Seaward zone

middle zone

inland zone

The colonisation and succession occur. The condition becomes more suitable for the successors which are the dominant species at that time.

A A A A A A

A A A

A A A A A

S S S S SS S S S S

A A A A A A A A S

S S S

A S

A S

A S

Distribution of different mangrove species at the mouth of a river.

Processes of Colonisation and Succession in a Pond


Pioneer stage
(sunken aquatic plants such as Hydrilla, Cabomba)

Succession by duckweeds (Lemna sp.), lotus, floating plants water hyacinths (Eichornia sp.) Succession by emergent plants
(sedge, cattails)

Succession by herbaceous plants Succession by woody plants

Climax Community

When the species die

decompose

Organic matter converted into humus Deposited at the base of the pond

Eroded soil from the pond bank (pond apron)

Animation

The pond become shallow

Pioneer stage
When pioneer plants die and decompose, the organic matter settle to the bottom of the pond and make the pond shallower.

This produce suitable conditions for aquatic floating plants.

Sucession by aquatic floating plants Floating plants cover the surface of the pond and prevent light from entering the pond. Pioneer plants cannot perform photosynthesis and die. These dead plants will sink to the bottom and increase the organic matter layer of the bottom

Succession by amphibious plants


Dead aquatic floating plants and eroded soil from the pond banks will raise the pond floor and make the pond too shallow for aquatic plants to float. The aquatic plants are succeeded by amphibious plants.

Succession by herbaceous plants The continued deposition of organic matter enables grass to gradually replace amphibious plants.

Succession by woody plants


The death of amphibious plants caused continued deposition of organic matter and evaporation of pond water will make the pond very shallow and eventually dry it up. Finally land plants and other woody plants will replace the amphibious plants and form a jungle.

Climax community The succession will stop when a level of balance is achieved.