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Physical Layer II
Manas Kumar Mishra
Computer Engineering and Applications

Physical Layer II: Outline

Modulation Digital modulation Analog modulation Spread Spectrum DSSS, FHSS Media Access

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Digital Radio Link

antenna Source Coder Source Multiplex Source Coder

Multiple Access

Channel Coder


Power Amplifier

Carrier f

transmitted symbol stream

Radio Technology and Trends


received (corrupted) symbol stream Source Decoder Destination Demultiplex Source Decoder Multiple Access Channel Decoder Demodulator & Equalizer RF Filter antenna

Carrier f

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Digital modulation
digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband) ASK, FSK, PSK - main focus differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness

Analog modulation
shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio carrier

smaller antennas (e.g., /4) Frequency Division Multiplexing medium characteristics

Basic schemes
Amplitude Modulation (AM) Frequency Modulation (FM) Phase Modulation (PM)

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Modulation and demodulation

digital data 101101001 radio carrier analog baseband signal analog demodulation radio carrier synchronization decision analog baseband signal digital modulation analog modulation radio transmitter

digital data

radio receiver

Modulation in action:

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Digital modulation
Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK): very simple low bandwidth requirements very susceptible to interference Frequency Shift Keying (FSK): needs larger bandwidth

Phase Shift Keying (PSK): more complex robust against interference

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Advanced Frequency Shift Keying

bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance between the carrier frequencies special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each bit is doubled depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower frequency, original or inverted is chosen the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the other Equivalent to offset QPSK even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian low-pass filter GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM

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Example of MSK
1 data 0 1 1 0 1 0 bit even even bits odd 0101 0011

odd bits

signal value

hnnh - - ++

low frequency

h: high frequency n: low frequency +: original signal -: inverted signal

high frequency

MSK signal t

No phase shifts!

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Advanced Phase Shift Keying

BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):
bit value 0: sine wave bit value 1: inverted sine wave very simple PSK low spectral efficiency robust, used e.g. in satellite systems 2 bits coded as one symbol symbol determines shift of sine wave needs less bandwidth compared to BPSK more complex

I 1 0



QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying):




Often also transmission of relative, not absolute phase shift: DQPSK Differential QPSK (IS-136, PHS)





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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) combines amplitude and phase modulation it is possible to code n bits using one symbol 2n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK Bit error rate increases with n, but less errors compared to comparable PSK schemes Q Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol) 0010 0001 Symbols 0011 and 0001 have 0011 the same phase , but different 0000 amplitude a. 0000 and 1000 have I different phase, but same amplitude.


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Hierarchical Modulation
DVB-T modulates two separate data streams onto a single DVB-T stream High Priority (HP) embedded within a Low Priority (LP) stream Multi carrier system, about 2000 or 8000 carriers QPSK, 16 QAM, 64QAM Q Example: 64QAM good reception: resolve the entire 64QAM constellation poor reception, mobile reception: 10 resolve only QPSK portion 6 bit per QAM symbol, 2 most significant determine QPSK HP service coded in QPSK (2 bit), 00 LP uses remaining 4 bit
000010 010101

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Spread spectrum technology

Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading can wipe out narrow band signals for duration of the interference Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band signal using a special code protection against narrow band interference
power interference spread signal power signal

detection at receiver

spread interference

Side effects: coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination tap-proof Alternatives: Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping

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Effects of spreading and interference


dP/df user signal broadband interference narrowband interference f sender

i) f





iii) f

iv) f receiver

v) f

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Spreading and frequency selective fading

channel quality

narrowband channels 1 2 3 4 5 6

frequency narrow band signal guard space

channel quality 2 2 2 2 2 1

spread spectrum channels

frequency spread spectrum

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DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) I

XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping sequence) many chips per bit (e.g., 128) result in higher bandwidth of the signal Advantages t b reduces frequency selective 1 0 fading t c in cellular networks base stations can use the same frequency range 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 several base stations can detect and recover the signal soft handover 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 Disadvantages t : bit period tb: chip period precise power control necessary c

user data XOR

chipping sequence

= resulting signal

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DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) II

user data
X spread spectrum signal modulator transmit signal

chipping sequence

radio carrier


correlator lowpass filtered signal demodulator X sampled sums data integrator decision

received signal


radio carrier

chipping sequence


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Spread Spectrum
Modulation that increases signal BW Mitigates or coherently combines ISI Mitigates narrowband interference/jamming Hides signal below noise (DSSS) or makes it hard to track (FH) Also used as a multiple access technique Two types Direction Sequence: Modulated signal multiplied by faster chip sequence Frequency Hopping: Narrowband signal hopped over wide bandwidth

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum

Bit sequence modulated by chip sequence
s(t) s (t) c S (f) c S(f)

S(f) S (f) * c

T c T =KT b c


Spreads bandwidth by large factor (K)

Despread by multiplying by sc(t) again (sc 2(t)=1)

Mitigates ISI and narrowband interference

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DSSS: An example

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DSSS: Another Example

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ISI and Interference Rejection

Narrowband Interference Rejection (1/K)
S(f) S(f) S (f) * c I(f) S(f) I(f) S (f) * c
Receiver Input Despread Signal

Info. Signal

Multipath Rejection (Autocorrelation r(t))

S(f) S(f) S (f)[ad(t)+b(t-t)] * c aS(f) brS(f)

Info. Signal

Receiver Input

Despread Signal

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Adjusts delay of sc(t-t) to hit peak value of autocorrelation. Typically synchronize to LOS component
Complicated by noise, interference, and Multipath Synchronization offset of Dt leads to signal attenuation by r(Dt)
r(Dt) Dt

-T c

T c

-1 2n-1

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Multiuser DSSS
Each user assigned a unique spreading code; transmit simultaneously over same bandwidth Interference between users mitigated by code cross correlation In downlink, signal and interference have same received power In uplink, close users drown out far users (a1>>a2: near-far problem)
a a 1

a 2

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Main Points
DSSS rejects interference by spreading gain DSSS rejects ISI by code autocorrelation Maximal linear codes have good autocorrelation properties but poor cross correlation Synchronization depends on autocorrelation properties of spreading code.

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FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) I

Discrete changes of carrier frequency sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo random number sequence Two versions Fast Hopping: several frequencies per user bit Slow Hopping: several user bits per frequency Advantages frequency selective fading and interference limited to short period simple implementation uses only small portion of spectrum at any time Disadvantages not as robust as DSSS simpler to detect

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FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) II

t b user data 0 f t d 1 0 1 1 t

f f

2 1 t t d

slow hopping (3 bits/hop)

f f

2 1 t

fast hopping (3 hops/bit)

t : bit period b

t : dwell time d

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FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) III

narrowband signal user data modulator modulator spread transmit signal

frequency synthesizer transmitter

hopping sequence

received signal demodulator

narrowband signal data demodulator

hopping sequence

frequency synthesizer receiver

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Collocation / Aggregate Rate
DSSS biggest advantage over FHSS is its capability to provide rates of up to 11 Mbps. When covering the whole 2.4 GHz band, three systems may be installed, providing an aggregate rate of 33 Mbps. (Overall efficiency: 33Mbps/83.5MHz = 0.39 bits/Hz). Additional systems, if installed, will share the spectrum with the already installed systems, lowering the overall aggregate rate / throughput because of collision occurrences. In a 2.4 GHz FHSS synchronized environment, up to 12 systems can be collocated, providing an overall aggregate rate of 36 Mbps (Overall efficiency: 36Mbps/83.5MHz= 0.43 bits/Hz). In a licensed FDD FHSS synchronized environment, up to 6 systems may be collocated in a 12 MHz band, providing an aggregate rate of 18 Mbps (Overall efficiency: 18Mbps/12MHz = 1.5 bits/Hz).

Contiguous band
IEEE 802.11 DSSS needs 22MHz, contiguous. If such a band is not available, the system can not be operated. FHSS does not require contiguous band for correct operation. If some frequencies are not available (administrative reasons), FHSS system could be set to use sequences that do not include the unavailable frequencies.

11 Mbps DSSS and 3 Mbps FHSS, cover more or less the same distances.

Near / far problem

Present in DSSS, not critical in FHSS.

Multipath sensitivity
DSSS is extremely sensitive, especially when operated at 11Mbps. To minimize multipath effects, directional antennas should be used, limiting the DSSS technology mainly to point to point applications.

Bluetooth interference
FHSS are significantly less sensitive to Bluetooth interference.

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Cell structure
Implements space division multiplex
base station covers a certain transmission area (cell)

Mobile stations communicate only via the base station Advantages of cell structures
higher capacity, higher number of users less transmission power needed more robust, decentralized base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally

fixed network needed for the base stations handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary interference with other cells

Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) - even less for higher frequencies
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Frequency planning I
Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the base stations Standard model using 7 frequencies:
f f f 4 f 1 5 f 6 f 4 3 f 2 f 5


2 Fixed frequency assignment: certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell problem: different traffic load in different cells Dynamic frequency assignment: base station chooses frequencies depending on the frequencies already used in neighbor cells more capacity in cells with more traffic assignment can also be based on interference measurements

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Frequency planning II
f 3 f f 1 f f 2 f f 3 1 3 f 2 2 f 1 f 3 f f 1 f 3 f 3 f f 6 2 f 5 2 f 3 f 2 f 1 3 cell cluster f f 2 f 4 f 1 f 7 5 f 6 f 4 f f 3 f 2 1 f 3 f 2 f 5 f 7 f 3

7 cell cluster

2 1 f h 1 f h 3 3 h 3 h 2 2 g g 1 h 1 h g 2 2 3 g 3 g 2 g 1 g 1 g 1 g 3 3 3 f 2 1

3 cell cluster with 3 sector antennas

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Thank you!
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Manas Kumar Mishra
Computer Engineering and Applications