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Analisa Estimasi Biaya

Arinil Haq Dian Astrina Muhammad Yahya Yunita Selonika

Estimasi rincian item

Turnover Ratio

Estimasi biaya unit

Biaya Investasi per Kapasitas Unit

Metode Estimasi Investasi Modal

Persentase biaya deliveredequipment

Penggunaan power factor untuk rasio pabrik / kapasitas

Faktor Lang untuk pendekatan investasi modal

Estimasi rincian item

Membutuhkan penentuan setiap masing-masing item Banyak digunakan oleh kontraktor penawaran karena membutuhkan data yang lengkap dan waktu lama Tingkat akurasi 5%

Estimasi biaya unit

Biasanya digunakan untuk persiapan pasti dan estimasi permulaan Membutuhkan estimasi detail harga pembelian yang berlaku seperti dari kutipan atau nilai indeks biaya dan data publikasi. Tingkat akurasi 20%

Persentase biaya deliveredequipment

Metode estimasi fixed-capital dan total capital investment dengan penentuan biaya deliveredequipment menggunakan rasio

Tingkat akurasi 20-30%

Faktor Lang untuk pendekatan investasi modal

Fixed capital investment didapat dari mengalikan biaya delivered-equipment dengan faktor tertentu. Faktor Lang ditunjukkan pada tabel 6.10

Memperkirakan besarnya biaya dengan menggabungkan fixedcapital investment proses baru dengan investasi modal tetap yang serupa dengan eksponensial rasio daya
Penggunaan power factor untuk rasio pabrik / kapasitas

Biaya Investasi per Kapasitas Unit

Turnover Ratio

Make a study estimate of fixed-capital investment for a


process plant if the purchased-equipment cost is $100.000. Use ratio factor outlined in Table 6.9 for a process plant handling both solids and fluids with a high degree of automatic controls and essentially outdoor operation. Do

not include land and modification for instrumentation as


10% of fixed-capital investment and take buildings as 15% of purchased equipment.

Solution
Berdasarkan Tabel 6.9, fixed-capital investment untuk solid-fluid processing plant = 428. Instrumentation = 10% . 428 = 42,8% Sehingga estimasi fixed-capital investment yang diperoleh berdasarkan tabel 6.9 adalah sebagai berikut.

Component Purchased equipment (delivered) E Purchased equipment installation Instrumentation (installed) Piping (installed) Electrical (installed) Building (including services) Yard improvements Service facilities (installed) Total Direct Plant Cost (D) Engineering and supervision Construction expenses Legal expenses Contractor's fee Contingency Total Indirect Plant Cost (I) Fixed-Capital Investment (D+I)

Percentage 39%E 43%E 31%E 10%E 15%E 12%E 55%E 32%E 34%E 4%E 19%E 37%E

Cost 100.000 39.000 43.000 31.000 10.000 15.000 12.000 55.000 305.000 32.000 34.000 4.000 19.000 37.000 126.000 $ 431.000

If a given chemical process plant is erected near Dallas, Texas (Southwest Area) with a construction labor cost of $100.000, what would be the

construction labor cost of an identical plant if it


were erected at the same time near Los Angeles (Pacific Cost Area) for the time when factors given in Table 6.12 apply?

Solution
Berdasarkan tabel 6.12, relative labor area Southwest dan Pacific Coast adalah 0,88 dan 1,22 dan relative productivity factor berturut-turut 1,04 dan 0,89 sehingga Rasio relative labor rate = 1,22/0.88 = 1,3864 Rasio relative productivity factor = 0,89/1,04 = 0,8558 Upah buruh untuk Pacific Coast terhadap Southwest : 1,3864 = = 1.620 0,8558 Maka upah buruh di Los Angeles = 1,620 . $100.000 = $162.000

Example 6.5 Estimation of Fixed-Capital Investment with Power Factor Applied to Plant/Capacity Ratio

If the process described in example 6.1 was erected in the Dallas area for a fixed-capital investment of $436.000 in 1990 (D = 316.000, I = 120.000). Estimate the fixed-capital investment in 1998 for similar process process plant located near Los Angeles with twice the process capacity but with an equal number of process unit. Use the power factor method to evaluate the new fixed-capital investment, and assume the factor given in Table 6.12 apply.

Solution
Jika persamaan yang digunakan = . . : x=0,6 ; Cn=$436.000.(1062/915).20,6=$767.000 x=0,7 ; Cn=$436.000.(1062/915).20,7=$822.000 Jika persamaan yang digunakan = ( + ), dimana f = fE.fL.eL : x=0,6 ; Cn=(1062/915)(1,22/0,88)(1,04/0,89) (316.000.20,6+120.000)=$1.126.000 x=0,7 ; Cn=(1062/915)(1,22/0,88)(1,04/0,89) (316.000.20,7+120.000)=$1.191.000
Hasil yang diperoleh dengan menggunakan prosedur terakhir menunjukkan korelasi tinggi dengan perkiraan fixed-capital investment yang diperoleh dengan teknik yang lebih rinci.

Estimasi Pendapatan
Pendapatan berasal dari penjualan produk atau proses produksi pabrik.

Total pendapatan tahunan dari penjualan produk dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut

Estimasi Biaya Total Produk


Manufacturing Cost
Variable Production Cost Fixed Charges Plant Overhead Cost

General Expenses
Biaya Administratif Biaya Distribusi dan Pemasaran Biaya Penelitian dan Pengembangan

Example 6.6 Estimation of Labor Requirements


Consider a highly automated processing plant having an output rate of 1.0 kg/s of product and requiring principal processing steps of heat transfer, reaction and distilation. What are the operating labor requirements for annual operation of 300 days?

Solution
Dari Gambar 6.9 (Peter ed.5, hlm 265), diperoleh bahwa jika kapasitas produksi 1kg/s (8,6 x 104 kg/hari) maka diperlukan 33 employee-hours/day.

Sehingga untuk 300 hari diperlukan

Operating Labor

= 3 x (33 employee-hours/day) x 300 day


= 29700 employee-hours

Gross Profit, Net Profit and Cash Flow

gj = Sj - Coj
Gross profit tanpa penyusutan

Aj = Npj + dj = Gj (1-) + dj

Np = Gj (1-)
j

Cash Flow

Example 6.7 Breakeven Point, Gross and Net Profit for a Process Plant
The annual variable production cost for a plant operating at 70% capacity are $280.000. The sum of the annual fixed charges, overhead costs, and general expenses is $200.000 and

may be considered not to change with production rate. The


total annual sales are $560.00 and the product sells for $4/kg. What are the gross annual profit Gj (depreciation included) and the net annual profit for this plant at 100 percents capasity if the income tax rate is 35% of gross profit.

Solution

Maka,

Sehingga,

Contingencies
Biaya yang dipersiapkan untuk halhal tidak terduga seperti pemogokan, banjir, badai, variasi harga, dsb.
Sumber : Peter, M S., Klaus D Timmerhaus, and Ronald E West. 2003. Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. Edition 5th. North America; The McGraw Hill Companies