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Separation techniques involving equilibration

Feed: homogeneous, single phase solution (gas, liquid or solid) A second phase must be developed or added: Energy separating agent ESA (heat transfer, shaft work, reduced pressure) Mass separating agent MSA ( partially immiscible or completely miscible) Contact of fluid phases intimate mixing to maximize mass transfer rates disengaging phases through gravity or application of force

1. Partial condensation, partial vaporization


Feed mixture: species that differ widely in their tendency to vaporize or condense. Heat removed to partially condense a vapor feed and heat added to partially vaporize liquid feed. Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created phase: liquid and/or vapor Separating agent: heat (ESA)

Partial condensation or vaporization

2. Flash vaporization
Partial vaporization by reducing the pressure of the feed. Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created phase: vapor Separating agent: pressure reduction

Flash vaporization

3. Distillation
If volatility differences are not sufficiently large single partial vaporization or condensation step is not sufficient multiple stages Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created or added phase: vapor and liquid Separating agent: heat (work) transfer (ESA)

Condenser

Reflux
Rectifying

Boilup

Stripping

Reboiler

Distillation

4. Extractive Distillation
If volatility differences are so small as to necessitate use of more than 100 trays. Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created or added phase: vapor and liquid Separating agent: liquid solvent (MSA) and heat transfer (ESA)

Solvent

Extractive Distillation

5. Reboiled Absorption
If condensation of vapor leaving the top of the distillation column is not easily accomplished by heat transfer, a liquid MSA called an absorbent may be introduced to the top tray in place of reflux Principle of separation: difference in volatilities, preferential solubility Created or added phase: vapor and liquid Separating agent: liquid absorbent (MSA) and heat transfer (ESA)

Absorbent

Reboiled absorption

6. Absorption
If the feed is all vapor and the stripping section of the column is not needed to achieve the desired separation. Usually does not require an ESA, conducted at ambient temperature and high pressure. Principle of separation: preferential solubility

Created or added phase: liquid


Separating agent: liquid absorbent (MSA)

Absorbent

Absorption

7. Stripping
The inverse of absorption. A liquid mixture is separated by contacting liquid feed with a stripping agent ( a vapor). Eliminates the need to reboil the liquid at the bottom of the column. Important if the liquid is not thermally stable. Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created or added phase: vapor

Separating agent: stripping vapor (MSA)

Stripping

8. Refluxed Stripping
It is employed if simple stripping is not sufficient to achieve the desired separation and contacting trays are needed above the feed tray. Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created or added phase: vapor and liquid

Separating agent: stripping vapor (MSA) and heat transfer (ESA)

Refluxed Stripping

9. Reboiled Stripping
If the bottoms product from a stripper is thermally stable, it may be reboiled without using an MSA Principle of separation: difference in volatilities Created or added phase: vapor Separating agent: heat transfer (ESA)

Reboiled Stripping

10. Azeotropic Distillation


For constant boiling mixtures, separation by distillation is not possible. An entrainer (MSA) is used which forms a heterogoneous minimum boiling azeotrope with one of the components in the mixture. Principle of separation: boiling point differences caused by formation of a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture Created or added phase: vapor and liquid Separating agent: liquid entrainer (MSA) and heat transfer (ESA)

azeotrope

( MSA + i )

( i ) + MSA

(j)

Azeotropic Distillation

11. Liquid-liquid extraction


Used when distillation is impractical. i. The mixture to be separated is heat sensitive, ii. Volatility differences are much too small Principle of separation: different solubilities of different species in the two liquid phases Created or added phase: liquid Separating agent: liquid solvent (MSA)

Liquid-liquid extraction

Liquid-liquid extraction (two solvent)

12. Drying of solids


Many chemicals are processed wet but sold in dry, solid forms. Drying is used to remove liquid from a solid by vaporizing the liquid. Principle of separation: evaporation of water Created or added phase: Vapor Separating agent: gas (MSA) and/or heat transfer (ESA)

Drying

13. Evaporation
The transfer of volatile components of a liquid into a gas by volatilization caused by heat transfer. Major applications are humidification, air conditioning, flash cooling, concentration of aqueous solutions. Principle of separation: difference in volatilities (vapor pressure)

Created or added phase: vapor


Separating agent: heat transfer (ESA)

Evaporation

14. Crystallization
Desired product is finely divided solid.
Solution crystallization: The mixture is cooled and/or the solvent is evaporated to cause crystallization.

Melt crystallization: Two or more soluble species, in the absence of a solvent, are separated by partial freezing.
Zone melting (refining): Reverse of melt crystallization. Used for removing impurity solids in metals by moving a molten zone slowly through an ingot. Principle of separation: difference in freezing tendencies; preferential participation in crystal structure. Created or added phase: solid (and vapor). Liquid in zone melting Separating agent: heat transfer (ESA)

Crystallization

15. Sublimation-Desublimation
Sublimation: Transfer of a substance from solid into gaseous without going through liquid state under high vacuum. Used for removal of a volatile compound from an essentially nonvolatile one. Principle of separation: sublimation of water preferential participation in crystal structure Created or added phase: solid

Separating agent: heat transfer (ESA)

Desublimation

16. Leaching (Liquid-solid extraction)

Diffusion of the solute out of the solid and into the liquid solvent is mostly the controlling step.
Principle of separation : preferential solubility

Created or added phase: liquid


Separating agent: liquid solvent (MSA)

Solvent

Leaching (liquid-solid extraction)

17. Foam fractionation


Two-phase adsorptive bubble separation method. Surface active material collects at bubble surfaces and leave in the foam product. Principle of separation : tendency of surfactant molecules to accumulate at gas-liquid interface and rise with air bubbles Created or added phase: gas Separating agent: gas bubbles (MSA)

Gas

Foam fractionation