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TRANSFER
Unsteady State Heat Transfer
Temperatures varies with location and
time.
Found in many food processing : thermal
process, pasteurization, frying, etc.

Where r=0 for a slab, n=1 for a cylinder
and r=2 for a sphere (in one dimensional
analysis)
n
n
p
T k T
r
t c r r r
c c c
| |
=
|
c c c
\ .
The solution for the equation above is very
hard and possible only for certain shape:
infinite slab, infinite cylinder and sphere.
What is an infinite cylinder or infinite
slab???
Importance of External vs Internal
Resistance to Heat Transfer
The heat transfer
from the fluid
surrounding object
will encounter two
resistance
(convective and
conductive
resistance)

Solid food
Fluid
heating/cooling
medium
Biot Number
int tan
tan
/
1/
dim
0.1 int tan
Bi
Bi
Bi
Bi
Bi
ernal conductiveresis ce withinthebody
N
external convectiveresis ceat the surfaceof thebody
dc k
N
h
hdc
N
k
where dc is ensional characteristic
N negligible ernal resis cetoheat transfer
N
=
=
=
<
> 40 tan
0.1 40 int tan
Bi
negligible surface resis ce to heat transfer
N finite ernal and external resis ce to heat transfer < <
Negligible Internal Resistance to Heat Transfer A
lumped System Analysis
Occur in :
Material with high value of k
Medium with poor value of h
Well-stirred liquid food in a container

( / )
( )
p
p a
hA c V t
bt
a
a i
T
q c V hA T T
t
T T
e e
T T

c
= =
c

= =

Ta is the medium temperature

Tanda minus dikarenakan suhu bahan
menjadi lebih kecil dari suhu awalnya.
,
( )
a
p a
bilaT T
T
q c V hA T T
t

<
c
= =
c
Example.
Calculate the temperature of tomato juice
(density = 980 kg/m
3
) in a steam-jacketed
hemispherical kettle after 5 min of heating.
The radius of the kettle is 0.5 m. The
convective heat-transfer coefficient in the
steam jacket is 5000 W/(m
2
C). The inside
surface temperature of the kettle is 90
o
C.
The initial temperature of tomato juice is
20
o
C. Assume specific heat of tomato
juice is 3.95 kJ/kg C.
example
An experiment was conducted to determine surface convective
heat-transfer coefficient for peas being frozen in an air-blast
freezer. For this purpose, a metal analog of peas was used. The
analog was a solid copper ball with a diameter of 1 cm. A small
hole was drilled to the center of the copper ball, and a
thermocouple junction was located at the center using a high
conductivity of epoxy. The density of copper is 8954 kg.m3, and
its specific heat is 3830 J/KgK. The copper ball (at a uniform
initial temperature of 10 oC) was hung in the path of air flow (at -
40 oC) and the center temperature indicated by the
thermocouple was recorded. The following table lists the
temperatures at one-minute intervals for 14 minutes. Determine
the surface heat transfer coefficient from these data.
time (s) temp (oC)
0 10
60 9
120 8
180 7
240 6
300 5
360 4
420 3
480 2
540 1
600 1
660 0
720 -2
780 -2
840 -3
Finite Internal and Surface
Resistance to Heat Transfer
The analytical solution for this case is very
hard and possible for only certain shape.
The use of chart (Heisslers chart)
The chart correlates unccomplished
temperature fraction (Ta-T)/(Ta-Ti),
inverse biot number and Fourier number.
..Fourier Number
2
2 3
3
3
(1/ )
/
Fo
p
Fo
t k dc d c
N
d c c d c t
rateof heat conduction across dcinabody volumed c
N
rateof heat storageinabody of volumed c
o

= =
=
Thus a larger value of Fourier number indicates
deep penetration of heat into the solid in a given
period of time.
p
k
c
o

=
Negligible Surface Resistance to Heat
Transfer
We still use heissler chart with the value of
inverse biot number =0
Finite Object..
a a a
a i a i a i
finitecylinder infinitecylinder infiniteslab
a a a a
infiniteslab infiniteslab infinit
a i a i a i a i
finiteslab
width depth
T T T T T T
T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T
T T T T T T T T
| | | | | |

=
| | |

\ . \ . \ .
| | | | | | | |

=
| | | |

\ . \ . \ . \ .
eslab
height
example
Estimate the time when the temperature at the geometric
center of a 6 cm diameter apple held in a 2
o
C water
stream reaches 3
o
C. The initial uniform temperature of
the apple is 15
o
C. The convective heat transfer
coefficient in water surrounding the apple is 50
W/(m
2o
C). The properties of the apple are thermal
conductivity k = o.355 W/(m
2o
C);specific heat cp = 3.6
KJ/(kg
o
C) ; and density =820 kg/m
3
.
Finite cylinder
..Example..
Estimate the themperature are the geometric center of a
food product contained in a 303 x 406 can exposed to
boiling water at 100
o
C for 30 min.The product is
assumed to heat and cool by conduction. The initial
uniform themperature of the product is 35
0
C. The
properties of the food are thermal conductivity k=0.34
W/(m
o
C); specific heat cp = 3.5 KJ/(kg
o
C); and density
= 900kg/m
3
. The convective heat transfer coefficient for
the boiling water is estimated to be 2000 W/(m
2o
C)
Note :
307 509
7 1
3 3.4375 0.125 3.3125 .
16 8
9 1
5 5.5625 0.25 5.3125 .
16 4
1 . 2.54
A x can
d in
L in
in cm
= = =
= = =
=
For case of food..
The fourier number is usually less than 1
because of the low thermal diffusivity of food ().
The use of expanded scale of heissler chart
(based on the work of Schneider, 1963).
The expanded-scale chart use biot number
directly, and the chart is plotted on linier-log
scale (not log linier).
The end