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Asam dan Basa

Water

1. Bagaimana struktur molekul air, kaitannya dengan sifat fisik dan kimianya? 2. Apakah ikatan hidrogen itu? 3. Apa yang dimaksud dg asam dan basa? 4. Apa yg dimaksud dg pH, dan kaitannya dengan sifat sir? 5. Apa yang dimaksud dengan kurva titrasi? 6. Apa yg dimaksud dg buffer, dan mengapa perlu?

Ionisasi Air
Air netral cenderung untuk mengion
H2O H+ + OH-

Proton bebas bergabung dengan satu molekul air membentuk ion hydronium H3O+

Lompatan Proton
Proton yang besar dan mobolitas hidroksida
H3O+ : 362.4 x 10-5 cm2V-1s-1 Na+: 51.9 x 10-5 cm2V-1s-1 Ion Hydronium berpindah; melompat 1012 per detik

Bentuk Kesetimbangan

H 2 O H OH
Dinyatakan dg: K= [H+] [OH-] [H2O]
dengan K konstanta disosiasi

Jika konsentrasi [H2O] tetap, maka: Kw = [H+][OH-]

Kw
Kw = [H+][OH-] dengan Kw konstanta ionisasi air Untuk air murni, konstanta ionisasinya 10-14 M2 pada 25C Untuk air murni [H+] = [OH-] = (Kw)1/2 = 10-7 M

Acids and bases


Untuk air murni (netral)
[H+] = [OH-] = (Kw)1/2 = 10-7 M Asam, jika [H+] > 10-7 M Basa, jika [H+] < 10-7 M

Acids and Bases


Definisi Asam Basa : Asam adalah senyawa yg dpt memberikan proton. Basa adalah senyawa yg menerima proton.

Acid

HA + H2O
Base

Or

Conjugate Acid

H3O+ + A- /OHConjugate

HA

Acid

Conjugate Base

A-

Conjugate Acid

H+

Acids and Bases


Definisi Asam Basa Lewis: Dengan pertimbangan bahwa yang bergerak di dalam atom adalah elektron, maka Lewis mendefinisikan asam dan basa yang lebih modern definisi asam basa Lewis : cara modern untukmendefinisikan asam dan basa Asam: electron acceptor. Basa: electron donor.

HA H A

Dalam reaksi kesetimbangan, perubahan konsentrasi [H+] akan meningkatkan rasio HA dan A-.

Dengan menambah H+ , A- akan dikonsumsi membentuk HA.


Begitu juga jika terjadi peningkatan konsentrasi [A-], kelebihan H+ juga akan dikonsumsi dan konsentrasi [H+] tidak akan berubah.

Kekuatan asam ditentukan oleh konstanta disosiasi Pada konsentrasi molar

untuk: HA + H2O reactants


HA ARasionya:

H 3O + + A products
H3O+ H2O

Pengukuran afinitas relatif proton untuk masing-masing pasangan conjugate asam basa.

Bagaimana dengan air


konsentrasi H2O relatif tidak banyak berubah pada larutan asam encer.

Bagaimana dengan konsentrasi H2O?


Ingat definisi konsentrasi: Mole per liter

1 mole H2O = 18 g = 18 ml

1000 g/liter

1000 g 55.5 M 18 g / mol

[ H ][ A ] K a K [ H 2O ] [ HA ]
Sekarang kita indekskan a pada K, sehingga menjadiKa

Asam lemah (K<1) Asam Kuat (K>1)


Asam kuat terurai sempurna: mengubah semua protonnya

H2O membentuk H3O+


HA H+ + A-

Asam lemah
Asam lemah tidak terurai sempurna: reaksi yang terbentuk adalah reaksi kesetimbangan:

Jika DITAMBAHKAN H+, kesetimbangan bergeser ke kiri membentuk HA yang lebih banyak dengan menggunakan A- yang ada.

Disosiasi H2O

H 2 O H OH
[ H ][OH ] K [ H 2O ]
Kw [ H ][ OH ] 10
14

Air juga terurai atau terdisosiasi [H2O] = 55.5


Tetapan inonisasi air

Since there is equal amounts of [H+] and [OH-]

[ H ] [OH ] 1x10 M
This is neutral At [H+] above this concentration the solution is ACIDIC

[ H ] 1x10

At [H+] below this concentration the solution is BASIC

[ H ] 1x10

[H+] 10-7 10-3 10-2 10-10 5x10-4 7x10-6 3.3x10-8 = = = = = = =

pH 7 3 2 10 3.3 5.15 7.48

pH

= -Log[H+]

Relationship between pH and [H+] / [OH-] concentration

Henderson - Hasselbalch equation


From
[ H ][ A ] K [ HA ]

Rearrange Take (-)Log of each

[ HA ] [H ] K [A ]

[ A ] pH log K log [ HA ]

[A ] pH pK log [ HA]

Buffers

[A ] pH pK log [HA]
[A ] 1 10 ratio varies from [ HA ] 10 1
Above and below this range there is insufficient amount of conjugate acid or base to combine with the base or acid to prevent the change in pH.

For weak acids


HA A- + H+

This equilibrium depends on concentrations of each component.

If [HA] = [A-] or 1/2 dissociated

Then

: pH = pK

By definition the pK is the pH where [HA] = [A-]

Buffers
A buffer can resist pH changes if the pH is at or near a its pK. Buffer range: the pH range where maximum resistance to pH change occurs when adding acid or base. It is = +1 pH from the weak acid pK If pK is 4.8 the buffering range is 3.8 to 5.8

Why?

The buffer effect can be seen in a titration curve.


To a weak acid salt, CH3C00-, add HC1 while monitoring pH vs. the number of equivalents of acid added. or do the opposite with base. Buffer capacity: the molar amount of acid which the buffer can handle without significant changes in pH. i.e 1 liter of a .01 M buffer can not buffer 1 liter of a 1 M solution of HCl but 1 liter of a 1 M buffer can buffer 1 liter of a .01 M solution of HCl

Distribution curves for acetate and acetic acid

Titration curve for phosphate

Blood Buffering System


Bicarbonate most significant buffer Formed from gaseous CO2 CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H2CO3 H+ + HCO3 Normal value blood pH 7.4 Deviations from normal pH value lead to acidosis

Henderson - Hasselbalch type problems:

[A ] pH pK log [HA]
You may be asked the pH, pK, the ratio of acid or base or solve for the final concentrations of each.

The 6 step approach


1. Write the Henderson + Hasselbalch equation. 2. Write the acid base equation 3. Make sure either an H+ or OH- is in the equation.

3. Find out what you are solving for


4. Write down all given values. 5. Set up equilibrium conditions. 6. Plug in H + H equation and solve.

What is the pH of a solution of that contains 0.1M CH3COO- and 0.9 M CH3COOH?
1) pH = pK + Log [A-] [HA] 2) CH3COOH 3) Find pH 4) pK = 4.76 A- = 0.1 M HA = 0.9 M CH3COO- + H+

5) Already at equilibrium 6) X = 4.76 + Log 0.1 0.9

Log 0.111 = -.95 X = 4.76 + (-.95)

X = 3.81

What would the concentration of CH3C00- be at pH 5.3 if 0.1M CH3C00H was adjusted to that pH.
1) pH = pK + Log [A-] [HA] CH3C00H CH3C00- + H+ Find equilibrium value of [A-] i.e [CH3C00-] pH = 5.3; pK = 4.76 Let X = amount of CH3C00H dissociated at equilibrium [A-] = [X] [HA] = [0.1 - X]

2) 3) 4) 5)

6)

5.3 = 4.76 + Log [X] [0.1 - X]

Now solve.

End of Chapter 2