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SIRKULASI SISTEMIK & SUSUNAN SYARAF TEPI

BERNY YULIANTO, DRH FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN HEWAN UNIVERSITAS WIJAYA KUSUMA SURABAYA

Sirkulasi sistemik
Sirkulasi sistemik adalah gerakan darah dengan O2 ke ke seluruh bagian tubuh dan kembalinya darah ber CO2 ke jantung Uraian berikut tentang pembuluh darah adalah terutamaberdasarkan pada kuda Hewan yang mempunyai sistem pencernaan

berbeda seperti ruminansia, atau yang mempunyai jumlah jari lebih dari satu (per kaki) mempunyai sedikit perbedaan susunan arteri dan vena

Aorta
ARKUS AORTA (busur aorta) Ventrikel kiri jantung menerima darah dengan O2 dari

atrium kiri dan memompanya ke seluruh sirkulasi sistemik memlaui arteri terbesar : aorta Katup aorta pada pertemuan ventrikel kiri dengan aorta mencegah aliran balik darah dari aorta ke ventrikel kiri pada saat ventrikel relaksasi Dua pembuluh besar muncul dari aorta segera di distal katup aorta : arteri koronaria kiri dan kanan pasokan darah arterial untuk myokardium (otot jantung) Sebagian besar darah vena dari miokardium kembali ke atrium kanan melalui vena koronaria mengalirkan darah langsung ke atrium kanan melalui sinus koronaria (berdekatan dengan ujung vena cava caudalis)

Setelah muncul dari basis jantung, arkus

aorta mengarah ke dorsal lalu ke caudal ( tidak jauh dari ventral corpus vertebrae thoracis) Aorta berlanjut sebagai aorta thoracica sampai melalui hiatus aorta di diafragma lalu disebut sebagai aorta abdominalis

Trunkus brachiocephalicus : arteri yang

mengalirkan darah ke kepala, leher dan kaki depan adalah cabang dari arkus aorta pada kuda dan ruminasia merupakan cabang tunggal besar

Secara umum dari aliran darah ke bagian

cranial tubuh (trunkus brachiocephalicus) [pola yang lebih tepat tergantung spesies):
Aliran darah utama ke kaki depan muncul sebagai arteri subclavia kiri dan kanan 2. Trunkus costoventralis kiri dan kanan mengalirkan darah ke daerah leher dan dinding thorax cranial 3. Arteri carotis comunis kiri dan kanan adalah aliran darah utama untuk kepala dan otak (keduanya muncul dari trunkus bicarotis tunggal)
1.

Aorta Thoracica Aorta thoracica mengarah ke caudal langsung di

ventral vertebrae. Pasangan-pasangan arteri segmental muncul dari sisi dorsal untuk memasok darah ke dinding thorax dan otot-otot epaxial : arteri-arteri intercostal memasuki ruang intercostal yang berhubungan memunculkan ramus spinalis yang memasuki canalis vertebralis untuk memasok darah ke medula spinalis dan akar syaraf spinalis Lanjutan dari arteri intercostal dorsal mengikuti tepi caudal setiap costae dan mengarah ke ventral Cabang lain dari aorta thoracica memasok darah ke esofagus, paru-paru dan diafragma

Aorta abdominalis di ventral beberap vertebrae lumbalis

berakhir dengan bercabang menjadi :


Dua arteri iliaca external memasok kaki

belakang Dua arteri iliaca internal memasok daerah gluteal dan perineal Pada beberapa spesies memiliki arteri median sacral lanjutan garis tengah kecil dari aorta yang melanjutkan ke ventral ke caudal sebagai arteri median caudal (vena median caudal biasanya jadi tempat pengambilan darah pada sapi dewasa)

Dari aorta abdominalis muncul


pasangan-pasangan arteri lumbalis memasok dinding abominal

dan otot-otot epaxial dan memberi ranting (ramus) spinalis untuk memasok medula spinalis dan akar syaraf spinalis di daerah lumbosacral

Pasangan cabang-cabang visceral (untuk organ dalam) :


Arteri renalis untuk ginjal Arteri testicular atau ovarium gonad

Tiga cabang yang tidak berpasangan yang memasok hampir

semua organ dalam di abdomen:


Arteri celiaca bercabang:

Arteri gastrica sinistra lambung Arteri splenica limpa Arteri hepatica hepar
Arteri mesenterica cranialis usus halus dan sebagian besar usus

besar Arteri mesenterica caudalis bagian caudal usus besar dan rektum

Distribusi arteri ke kepala


Hampir semua struktur di wajah, kepala dan leher cranial di pasok

oleh arteri carotis communis kanan dan kiri, yang masing-masing mengarah cranial dalam lembaran jaringan ikat bersama dengan truncus vagosympatheticus di sisi yang sama. Cabang-cabang arteri carotis communis memasok darah ke kelenjar tiroid dan larinks Pada daerah larinks, dari arteri carotis communis muncul arteri carotis interna sumber utama darah ke otak The continuation of the common carotid artery is the external carotid artery, whose many branches supply the face, tongue, and structures of the oral and nasal cavities. Lanjutan arteri carotis communis adalah arteri carotis externa yang memberi cabang-cabang ke wajah, lidah, dan struktur-struktur pada rongga mulut dan hidung Arteri facialis untuk pulsasi pada mandibula

Arteri carotis interna atau turunannya masuk salam suatu cincin

anastomotik pembuluh darah di dasar otak : circulus arteriosus cerebri (circle of Willis) darinya muncul arteri-arteri yang memasok cerebral hemisphere dan bagian rostral dari batang otak Bagian-bagian lebih caudal dari batang otak dan cerebellum (otak kecil) mendapatkan pasokan darah dari cabang-cabang arteri basilaris

Distribusi arteri di kaki depan


The right and left subclavian arteries follow the same course on each side of

the body and each gives off similar branches. Within the thorax each subclavian artery gives off a number of branches that supply blood to the caudal part of the neck, much of the thoracic wall, and the dorsal part of the shoulder. The subclavian artery passes cranial to the first rib on the respective side, passing into the axilla (armpit) of the thoracic limb, where it is called the axillary artery. The axillary artery enters the limb, becoming the brachial artery in the region of the brachium and then the median artery as it continues distal to the elbow. The largest terminal branch of the median artery in the horse is the medial palmar artery, which passes distad in the metacarpus to the fetlock, where it divides into medial and lateral digital arteries. In ruminants, the median artery is continued in the manus as the palmar common digital artery

Arterial Distribution to the Pelvic Limb


The abdominal aorta terminates near the lumbosacral junction in the two internal iliac arteries (and often a small, midline

continuation called the median sacral artery). Each internal iliac artery and its many branches supply the region of the pelvis, the hip, and much of the genitalia.

Just cranial to the internal iliac arteries, the external iliac arteries arise and give rise to branches serving caudoventral parts of the abdominal wall and structures of the inguinal region (prepuce, scrotum, and/or mammary gland). These large arteries then continue into the pelvic limbs as the femoral arteries. The femoral artery descends on the medial aspect of the limb, giving branches to the large thigh muscles, and continues in the region of the caudal stifle as the popliteal artery. After a very short course, the popliteal artery divides into cranial and caudal tibial arteries.

The small caudal tibial artery supplies the muscles of the crus, or true leg. The cranial tibial artery is larger; it passes craniad between the tibia and fibula and descends on the cranial side of the crus to the hock. Where this vessel lies on the flexor surface of the hock, it is referred to as the dorsal pedal artery. In horses, it continues distad as the dorsal (great) metatarsal a. III, running on the lateral side of the pes in the groove between the cannon bone and lateral splint. Ultimately, it passes to the plantar aspect of the distal cannon bone by crossing deep to the splint bone. At the equine fetlock it divides into medial and lateral digital arteries. In ruminants, the dorsal pedal artery continues distad on the dorsal aspect of the pes; the plantar side is supplied by a continuation of the saphenous artery, a medial branch of the femoral artery (

Cranial Vena Cava


The cranial vena cava drains the head, neck,thoracic limbs, and part of the thorax.
Tributaries to the cranial vena cava include

the jugular veins (internal and external), subclavian veins, and vertebral veins. The external jugular veins drain the face and much of the head, while the internal jugular veins, if present, along with the vertebral veins drain most of the blood from the brain.

Each subclavian vein receives venous blood

from the same areas that are supplied by the subclavian artery and its branches (shoulder, neck, and thoracic limbs). The azygos vein (the word azygos derives from the Greek word meaning unpaired) lies adjacent to the vertebral column, receiving the segmentally arranged intercostal veins.

In horses, the right azygos vein empties at

the junction between cranial vena cava and right atrium. Ruminants sometimes have both right and left azygos veins, but more usually have a single left azygos vein,which empties directly into the right atrium with the coronary sinus The pig possesses a left azygous vein, which empties into the coronary sinus.

Caudal Vena Cava


The caudal vena cava is formed in the abdomen by the junction of the paired internal and external iliac veins. These drain the gluteal and perineal regions and the pelvic limbs, respectively.
The caudal vena cava also receives lumbar

veins, testicular or ovarian veins, renal veins, and various others from structures associated with the body walls.

Just caudal to the point at which the caudal

vena cava passes through the caval foramen of the diaphragm, it receives a number of short hepatic veins directly from the liver.

Portal System
A portal system is one in which a vessel

divides into capillaries, recombines to form another vessel, and then redivides into a second capillary bed. In the hepatic portal system, blood that has perfused the capillary beds of the viscera is brought to the liver by a single large vein, the portal vein, and then is redistributed into a second capillary bed within the substance of the liver

Tributaries to the portal vein include the

gastric vein from the stomach, the splenic vein from the spleen, the mesenteric veins from the intestines, and the pancreatic veins from the pancreas. The portal vein enters the liver and immediately breaks up into smaller and smaller branches there, finally ending in the sinusoids of the liver.

in the sinusoids the blood comes into direct

contact with cells of the liver. After being acted upon by the liver cells the blood passes from the sinusoids of the liver into the livers venous system and eventually empties into the caudal vena cava.

Susunan syaraf tepi

Praktikum cek dan foto

Organ dalam :
Jantung Paru-paru Aorta Vena cava Diafragma Lambung Usus halus Usus besar Hepar Ginjal Testes/ovarium Uterus Vesiva urinaria

Kepala : M. Zygomaticus M. Masseter M. Buccinator M. Levator nasolabialis A. Facialis N.facialis

Leher:
Ligamentum nuchae M. Brachiocephalicus

M.sternomandibularis
M.omobrachialis M.splenius

A.carotis communis
V.jugularis N.vagosympatheticus Nervi spinalis

Kaki depan:
M.trapezius
M.serratus ventralis M.deltoideus

M.supraspinalis
M.infraspinalis M.subscapularis

M.rhomboideus
M.triceps brachialis M.biceps brachialis M.latissimus dorsi M.brachialis M.pectoralis

M.teres mayor M.extensor carpi radialis M.extensor carpi ulnaris M.flexor carpi radialis

M.flexor carpi ulnaris


A.brachialis V.brachialis

A.median
V.median Plexus brachialis N.median

Thorax & abdomen


M.Intercostalis externa M.Intercostalis interna

M.Retractor costae
M.Serratus dorsalis cranialis M.Serratus dorsalis caudalis

M. Longissimus
M.spinalis & semispinalis M.iliocostalis

M.rectus thoracis
M.rectus abdominis

M.obliquus abdominis externa M.obliquus abdominis interna M.transversus abdominis Linea alba Nervi spinalis A. intercostalis

Kaki belakang:
m.psoas minor m.iliopsoas m.quadratus lumborum M.gluteobiceps m.gluteus medius M.semitendinosus M.semimembranosus M.trensor fascia latae M.quadriceps femoris M.gracilis M.sartorius

Plexus sacrolumbalis
A.femoralis V.saphena

m.tibialis cranialis
m.peronaeus (fibularis) longus m.peronaeus (fibularis) brevis

m.peronaeus (fibularis) tertius


m.flexor digitorum superficialis m.flexor digitalis profundus

m.extensor digitorum longus


m.extensor digitorum lateralis M.extensor hallucis longus