Anda di halaman 1dari 15

SUFFIX

SUFFIX
In grammar, a suffix (also postfix, ending) is an affix which is placed at the end of a word. Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes), or lexical information (derivational suffixes).

INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXATION

Some inflectional suffixes in present day English: -s third person singular present -ed past tense -ing progressive/continuous -en past participle -s plural -en plural (irregular) -er comparative -est superlative -n't negative s Genitive case

DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXATION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

NOUN NOUN SUFFIXES NOUN/ADJECTIVE NOUN/ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES VERB NOUN SUFFIXES ADJECTIVE NOUN SUFFIXES VERB SUFFIXES NOUN ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES OTHER ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES ADVERB SUFFIXES

1. NOUN SUFFIXES SUFFIX ADDED TO


FORM - ster, - eer

NOUN
TO MEANING EXAMPLES person engaged Gangster, in an occupation gamester or activity Engineer, racketeer teenager Londoner Glover Booklet, leaflet Cigarette Leatherette Usherette Waitress,

Nouns to personal nouns

- er

Nouns to personal Varied and inanimate nouns meanings: Having X Inhabitant of X Maker of X Countable nouns to countable nouns Nouns to nouns small, unimportant small, compact imitation(materi al) Female Female

- let - ette

- ess

Animate nouns to

SUFFIX -y - hood - ship - dom - ocracy - ery, -ry

1. NOUN NOUN SUFFIXES ADDED TO TO FORM MEANING


Nouns to nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Nouns to abstract nouns Chiefly nouns to: Abstract nouns Concrete nouns Mass nouns Countable nouns to mass nouns Countable nouns to status status, condition domain, realm, condition system of government Behavior place of activity collectivity The substance which noun is composed the amount which

EXAMPLES Daddy, Johnny Boyhood, brotherhood Friendship Membership Kingdom Officialdom Democracy Meritocracy Slavery Refinery Machinery Matting, Tubing Mouthful,

-Ing

- ful

2. NOUN/ADJECTIVE NOUN/ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES


SUFFIX - (i) an ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING belonging to pertaining to EXAMPLES Indonesian Parisian Republican Chiefly proper nouns to: Personal and adjectives

- ese

Chiefly proper nouns to: Personal nouns and adjectives


Noun/adjectives to personal noun/adjectives Noun/adjectives to abstract nouns

Nationality

Chinese Portuguese Japanese


Racialist Loyalist Idealism Absenteeism

- ist

member of a party, occupation doctrine point of view political or artistic movement

- ism

3. VERB NOUN SUFFIXES


SUFFIX - er ADDED TO TO FORM MEANING Aggential suffix EXAMPLES Worker, writer, driver, silencer, windowcleaner Inhabitant, contestant, informant. Trainee, employee Exploration Foundation Arrangement, amazement Refusal, revival, dismissal, upheaval Mainly verbs to mainly personal nouns Verbs to personal noun

- ant

Aggential suffix

- ee - ation

Verbs to personal nouns Verbs to abstract nouns

Passive suffix state action institution

- ment - al

Verbs to abstract nouns Dynamic verbs to chiefly countable abstract nouns

state action action

3. VERB NOUN SUFFIXES


SUFFIX - ing ADDED TO Verbs to: Abstract nouns Concrete nouns TO FORM MEANING activity state resultant from the activity of the verb extent amount EXAMPLES Bathing, driving Painting, building, opening Coverage, leverage, wastage

- age

Verbs to mass abstract nouns

4. ADJECTIVE NOUN SUFFIXES


SUFFIX - ness - ity ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING state quality state quality EXAMPLES Meanness, happiness Sanity, diversity, elasticity Adjectives to abstract nouns Adjectives to abstract nouns

5. VERB SUFFIXES
SUFFIX - ify - ize - en ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING causative causative EXAMPLES Beautify, diversify, codify Decimalize, symbolize Ripen, widen, deafen, sadden, quicken Nouns, adjectives to verbs Nouns, adjectives to verbs Adjectives to: verbs

Make more Become

6. NOUN ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES


SUFFIX
- ful

ADDED TO FORM
Abstract nouns to adjectives

TO

MEANING
full of having giving

EXAMPLES
Useful, pitiful, successful, helpful

- less
- ly - like -y - ish

Nouns to adjectives
Concrete nouns to adjectives Concrete nouns to adjectives Concrete mass nouns to adjectives Proper and countable nouns to: adjectives

without not giving


Having the qualities of Having the qualities of like full of covered with

Speechless, restless, careless


Beastly, manly, cowardly, worldly Childlike, cowlike, statesmanlike Meaty, sandy, creamy, hairy

Belonging to having the character of

Swedish, Turkish Foolish, selfish, modish

8. OTHER ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES


SUFFIX - able - ish - ed ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING Passive Somewhat having EXAMPLES Acceptable, readable Reddish, tallish, poorish Walled, pointed, giant-sized, blue eyed. Transitive verbs to adjectives adjectives to adjectives Nouns or noun phrases to adjectives

9. ADVERB SUFFIXES
SUFFIX -Ly ADDED TO FORM TO MEANING In amanner EXAMPLES Happily, strangely, oddly Onward, backwards, eastwards Adjectives to adverbs of manner, viewpoint Prepositional adverbs and nouns to adverbs of manner and direction Nouns to Adverbs of manner Viewpoint adverbs

- ward (s)

Manner and direction of movement

-wise

In a manner of as far as.is concerned

Crabwise, clockwise. Weather-wise, education-wise