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1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc.

Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


Studi Aliran Daya
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC
LEADING & LAGGING
POWER FACTORS
jQ P
I V
S S
I V S
LL
LN
+ =
=
=
=
*
1 3
*
1
3
3
| |
|
Power in Balanced 3-Phase Systems
Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor
Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.
Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.
Current and Voltage
Power in Balanced 3-Phase Systems
Leading
Power
Factor
Lagging
Power
Factor
ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors as
negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.
jQ P +
Leading & Lagging Power Factors
P - jQ P + jQ
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC
PER - UNIT
Jika telah memiliki dua parameter dasar
Maka dua parameter lain dapat dihitung
menggunakan rumusan dalam kurung.
The different bases are:
I
B
(Base Current)
Z
B
(Base Impedance)
V
B
(Base Voltage)
S
B
(Base Power)
3-Phase Per Unit System

B
actual
pu
B
actual
pu
Z
Z
Z
I
I
I
=
=
B
actual
pu
B
actual
pu
S
S
S
V
V
V
=
=
ETAP selects for LF:
100 MVA untuk S
B
adalah fixed untuk seluruh
sistem.
Rating kV menggunakan titik acuan dari ratio
belitan transformator digunakan untuk
menentukan tegangan dasar (basis) untuk
bagian sistem yang berbeda.
3-Phase Per Unit System

Example 1:
The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP akan mengkonversi nilai impedansi
cabang sesuai dengan basis yang tepat untuk perhitungan Load Flow .
The LF reports show the branch impedance values in percent. The
transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31 and the X/R = 12.14
2
B
1
B
kV
2 N
1 N
kV =
Transformer Turn Ratio: Rasio belitan trafo digunakan ETAP untuk
menentukan tegangan basis pada bagian yang berbeda dari sistem. Different
turn ratios are applied starting from the utility kV rating.
Untuk menentukan tegangan basis
1
B
kV
2
B
kV
2
pu
pu
R
X
1
R
X
Z
X
(

+
(

=
Transformer T7:
Persamaan untuk mencari impedansi
transformer T7 adalah 100 MVA base.
06478 . 0
) 14 . 12 ( 1
) 14 . 12 ( 065 . 0
X
2
pu
=
+
=
Transformer T7:
Persamaan untuk mencari impedansi
transformer T7 adalah 100 MVA base.
(

=
R
X
x
R
pu
pu
005336 . 0
14 . 12
06478 . 0
R
pu
= =
06478 . 0
) 14 . 12 ( 1
) 14 . 12 ( 065 . 0
X
2
pu
=
+
= 005336 . 0
14 . 12
06478 . 0
R
pu
= =
The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where n stands for new and o stands for old.
) 3538 . 1 j 1115 . 0 (
5
100
5 . 13
8 . 13
) 06478 . 0 j 10 33 . 5 (
S
S
V
V
Z Z
2
3
o
B
n
B
2
n
B
o
B
o
pu
n
pu
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

38 . 135 j 15 . 11 Z 100 Z %
pu
+ = =
Impedance Z1: Tegangan basis ditentukan
menggunakan rasio belitan trafo. Impedansi
basis untuk Z1 ditentukan menggunakan
tegangan basis pada Bus5 dan MVA basis.
0695 . 4
31 . 3
5 . 13
2 N
1 N
kV
V
utility
B
= =
(

=
165608 . 0
100
) 0695 . 4 (
MVA
V
Z
2 2
B
B
= = =
N1/N2 =13,8/4,16 = 3,31
8 . 603 38 . 60 100 % j Z Z
pu
+ = =
) 0382 . 6 j 6038 . 0 (
1656 . 0
) 1 j 1 . 0 (
Z
Z
Z
B
actual
pu
+ =
+
= =
Nilai per-unit dari impedansi dapat ditentukan secara cepat
setelah impedansi basis diketahui. Nilai ini dapat dilihat secara
langsung dengan mengali dengan seratus persen.
This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.
The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance
values in 100 MVA base
Load Flow Analysis
Load Flow Problem
Given
Load Power Consumption at all buses
Configuration
Power Production at each generator

Basic Requirement
Power Flow in each line and transformer
Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus
Lingkup Kajian Studi Aliran Daya
(Determine Steady State Operating Conditions)
Voltage Profile
Power Flows
Current Flows
Power Factors
Transformer LTC Settings
Voltage Drops
Generators Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
Total Generation & Power Demand
Steady State Stability Limits
MW & Mvar Losses
Mendapatkan Ukuran dan Parameter
Cable / Feeder Capacity
Capacitor Size
Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)
Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.
MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)
Generators Mvar Demand
Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
Optimize Operating Conditions
Tegangan bus sesuai batas yang dapat
diterima/ Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits
Tegangan dan rating isolasi peralatan/ Voltages are
Within Rated Insulation Limits of Equipment
Aliran daya dan arus tanpa melampaui batas
rating maksimum/ Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the
Maximum Ratings
Menentukan losis MW dan MVAR/ System MW &
Mvar Losses are Determined
Menghilangkan sirkulasi aliran MVAR/ Circulating
Mvar Flows are Eliminated
Assume V
R
Calc: I = S
load
/ V
R

Calc: Vd = I * Z
Re-Calc V
R
= Vs - Vd


Proses Perhitungan
Non-Linear
Secara iteratif
Asumsi Tegangan Beban/Load
Voltage (Initial Conditions)
Menghitung arus I
Menghitung Voltage Drop Vd
berdasarkan Arus.
Hitung ulang tegangan VR
Gunakan lagi Tegangan Beban/Load
Voltage sebagai kondisi initial
sampai diperoleh hasil sesuai
tingkat presisi yang dispesifikasi .

1. Accelerated Gauss-Seidel Method
Low Requirements on initial values,
but slow in speed.


2. Newton-Raphson Method
Fast in speed, but high requirement on
initial values.
First order derivative is used to speed up
calculation.



3. Fast-Decoupled Method
Two sets of iteration equations: real
power voltage angle,
reactive power voltage magnitude.
Fast in speed, but low in solution
precision.
Better for radial systems and
systems with long lines.


Metode Perhitungan
kV
kVA
FLA
kV
kVA
FLA
Ef f PF
HP
Ef f PF
kW
kVA
Rated
Rated
Rated
Rated
=

=

=
|
|
1
3
3
7457 . 0
PF dan Efisiensi pada saat kondisi pembebanan 100 %
kV
kVA
1000 I
) kV 3 (
kVA
1000 I
kVA
kW
PF
) kVar ( ) kW ( kVA
1
3
2 2
=

=
=
+ =
|
|
NAME PLATE BEBAN
kV
kVA
FLA
kV
kVA
FLA
Ef f PF
HP
Ef f PF
kW
kVA
Rated
Rated
Rated
Rated
=

=

=
|
|
1
3
3
7457 . 0
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %
loading conditions
kV
kVA
1000 I
) kV 3 (
kVA
1000 I
kVA
kW
PF
) kVar ( ) kW ( kVA
1
3
2 2
=

=
=
+ =
|
|
Load Nameplate Data
Constant Power Loads
In Load Flow calculations induction,
synchronous and lump loads are treated as
constant power loads.
The power output remains constant even if the
input voltage changes (constant kVA).
The lump load power output behaves like a
constant power load for the specified % motor
load.
In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads (%
static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
Loads.
The Input Power increases proportionally to the square of
the Input Voltage.
In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as capacitive
loads for Power Factor Correction.
MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.
Constant Impedance Loads
1996-2008 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 28
The current remains constant even if the voltage
changes.
DC Constant current loads are used to test Battery
discharge capacity.
AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for
Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.
Constant Current Loads

Constant Current Loads
Exponential Load
Polynomial Load
Comprehensive
Load
Generic Loads
Feedback Voltage
AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
Fixed: Fixed Excitation
(no AVR action)
Generator Operation Modes
Governor Operating Modes
Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generators power output to be adjusted based on the
system demand.
Droop: This governor setting allows the generator to be
Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is fixed.
Isochronous Mode
Droop Mode
Droop Mode
Droop Mode
Adjusting Steam Flow
Adjusting Excitation
Swing Mode
Governor is operating in
Isochronous mode
Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control
Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control
Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR
action)

PF Control
Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
AVR Adjusts to Power Factor
Setting
In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating
modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.
If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the model
is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)
In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand

In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q & u are
varied

In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V & u are
varied
Generator Capability Curve
Generator Capability Curve
Generator Capability Curve
Field Winding Heating Limit
Armature Winding Heating Limit
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)
Steady State Stability Curve
Maximum & Minimum Reactive
Power
Field Winding
Heating Limit
Machine Rating
(Power Factor Point)
Steady State Stability Curve
Generator Capability Curve
Load Flow Loading Page
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page
10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid in
the System
Generation Categories
X
V
) *COS(
X
*V V
Q
) ( *SIN
X
*V V
P
X
V
) ( *COS
X
*V V
j ) ( *SIN
X
*V V
jQ P I * V S
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
=
=
(

+ =
+ = =
o o
o o
o o o o

Z =
Z =
2 2
2
1 1
1
V V
V V
o
o
Power Flow
Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are
connected as shown. If V
1
= 100 /0 , V
2
= 100 /30 and X = 0 +j5
determine the power flow in the system.
I
var 536 5 35 . 10 X | I |
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 )( 50 j 6 . 86 ( I V
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 ( 100 I V
68 . 2 j 10 I
5 j
) 50 j 6 . 86 ( 0 j 100
X
V V
I
2 2
*
2
*
1
2 1
= =
= + + =
+ = + =
=
+ +
=

=
2
1
0
1
Real Power Flow
React ive Power Flow
Power Flow
1
2
V E ( )
X
sin o
A
( )
V E ( )
X
cos o
A
( )
V
2
X

t 0 o
A
The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.
S
ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways
kV value
Percent of Nominal Bus kV
% 83 . 97 100 %
5 . 13
min
= =
=
al No
Calculated
Calculated
kV
kV
V
kV 8 . 13
min
=
al No
kV
% 85 . 96 100 %
03 . 4
min
= =
=
al No
Calculated
Calculated
kV
kV
V
kV
16 . 4
min
=
al No
kV
For Bus4:
For Bus5:
Bus Voltage
Lump Load Negative Loading
Load Flow Adjustments
Transformer Impedance
Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation tolerance
Reactor Impedance
Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance
Overload Heater
Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance
Transmission Line Length
Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance
Cable Length
Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance
Adjustments applied
Individual
Global
Temperature Correction
Cable Resistance
Transmission Line
Resistance
Load Flow Study Case Adjustment
Page
Allowable Voltage Drop
NEC and ANSI C84.1
Load Flow Example 1 Part 1
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis
Slide 57
Load Flow Example 1 Part 2
Load Flow Alerts
Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps
Cable Monitor Continuous Amps
Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps
Line Monitor Line Ampacity
Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output
UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps
Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW

Equipment Overload Alerts
Protective Devices

Monitored parameters % Condition reported

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker

Continuous rated Current

OverLoad

High Voltage Circuit Breaker

Continuous rated Current

OverLoad

Fuses

Rated Current

OverLoad

Contactors

Continuous rated Current

OverLoad

SPDT / SPST switches

Continuous rated Current

OverLoad

Protective Device Alerts
If the Auto Display
feature is active, the
Alert View Window will
appear as soon as the
Load Flow calculation
has finished.
1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 62