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DISTILASI

Disarikan dari Catatan Kuliah


Charles Musgrave
Chemical Engineering Department, Stanford University
Referensi
Seader dan Henley, Separation Process Principles
Metode McCabe-Thiele (1)
Total condenser

Feed

Overhead vapor

Boilup

N

2

1

Distillation
f

Reflux drum

Rectifying section stages

Stripping section stages

Feed Stage

Bottoms

Partial reboiler

Reflux

Distillate

Metode McCabe-Thiele (2)
Aliran berlawanan arah banyak tahap dalam kolom distilasi biner diperlihatkan sebagai berikut.
(a) Kolom dengan N jumlah tahap teoritik
(b) Kondensor total yang menghasilkan cairan refluks yang bertindak sebagai absorbent dan cairan
distilat
(c) Reboiler parsial yang menghasilkan uap boilup yang bertindak sebagai stripping agent dan
produk bawah
(d) Tahap umpan berada di tengah.

Konfigurasi ini menghasilkan pemisahan tajam, kecuali ada azeotrop dengan
konsentrasi distilat dekat dengan titik azeotrop.
Tujuan distilasi adalah
memperoleh distilat
yang kaya komponen
kunci ringan dan
produk bawah yang
kaya komponen kunci
berat.
Total condenser

Feed

Overhead
vapor

Boilup

N

2

1

Distillation
f

Reflux drum

Rectifying section stages

Stripping section stages

Feed Stage

Bottoms

Partial reboiler

Reflux

Distillate

Metode McCabe-Thiele (3)
Komposisi umpan dinyatakan oleh fraksi mol komponen ringan (LK), Z
F
. Pada suhu dan tekanan umpan dapat
berwujud cair, uap, atau campuran uap-cair. Komposisi distilat dinyatakan oleh fraksi mol komponen ringan (LK),
X
D
, dan komposisi produk bawah X
B
.
Tingkat kesulitan dalam
memperoleh pemisahan
ditentukan oleh nilai relative
volatility, o antara LK
(index-1) dan HK (index-2).
2
1
2 , 1
K
K
= o
Jika dua komponen
membentuk larutan ideal,
sehingga Hukum Raoult dapat
diterapkan:
P
P
K
o
i
i
=
Relative volatility adalah
perbandingan tekanan uap
murni:
o
o
P
P
2
1
2 , 1
= o
Total condenser

Feed

Overhead vapor

Boilup

N

2

1

Distillation
f

Reflux drum

Rectifying section stages

Stripping section stages

Feed Stage

Bottoms

Partial reboiler

Reflux

Distillate

Fraksi mol LK x
D
Fraksi mol LK x
B
Hanya tergantung T
Jika T naik, o berkurang
hingga mencapai satu
yang berarti tidak terjadi
pemisahan.
Fraksi mol LK z
F
Metode McCabe-Thiele (4)
Relative volatility dapat dituliskan:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1
1 1
1 1
1 1
2 2
1 1
2
1
2 , 1
1
1
1 / 1
/
/
/
y x
x y
x y
x y
x y
x y
K
K

=

= = = o
Untuk suhu didih yang berdekatan, maka o hampir konstan sepanjang kolom.
Penyelesaian untuk fraksi mol ringan dalam uap menghasilkan:
Untuk komponen yang memiliki titik didih tidak berdekatan, o akan berubah tergantung
pada komposisinya.
y
1
=
o
1,2
x
1
1+ x
1
o
1,2
1
( )
y
1

x
1
Kurva
Keseimbangan

Garis 45


y
1

x
1
Garis 45


Kenaikan relative
volatility
Spesifikasi
Laju umpan total (F)
Fraksi mol umpan (z
F
)

Tekanan operasi kolom (P)
Kondisi fase umpan.
Kurva keseimbangan uap-cair
Jenis kondensor (total atau parsial)
Fraksi mol distilat (x
D
)
Fraksi mol produk bawah (x
B
)


Rasio reflux terhadap refluks minimum (R/R
min
)

Hasil
Laju distilat (D)
Laju produk bawah (B)
Jumlah tahap minimum tahap keseimbangan (N
min
)
Reflux ratio minimum, R
min
= L
min
/D
Reflux ratio, R = L/D
Boilup ratio, R = V/B
Jumlah tahap keseimbangan (N)
Lokasi umpan optimal
Komposisi uap dan cair tiap tahap
Metode McCabe-Thiele: Spesifikasi (5)
Metode McCabe-Thiele: Neraca Massa (6)
Fz
F
= x
D
D+ x
B
B
Feed

Boilup

N

2

1

f

Bottoms

Reflux

F, z
F
D, x
D
B, x
B
Distillate
Neraca Massa (dalam komponen LK) :

Neraca massa total:
F = D+ B
Diperoleh:

D= F
z
F
x
B
x
D
x
B
|
\


|
.
|
|
Jika D, F, z
F
diketahui, maka
x
D
atau x
B
dapat dihitung.
McCabe-Thiele Method: Rectifying Section (7)
V
n+1
y
n+1
= L
n
x
n
+ Dx
D
Yang dapat disusun menjadi:

Rectifying section dimulai dari tahap-1 hingga tahap di atas umpan
Jika dibuat neraca massa komponen ringan (light key)
di sekitar tahap-n bagian rectifying section termasuk kondensor.

y
n+1
=
L
n
V
n+1
x
n
+
D
V
n+1
x
D
Feed (L/V)

Boilup

N

n

1

f

Bottoms

Reflux

Z
F
L, x
D
= x
0
x
B
Distillate
x
D
n

1

Reflux

L
0
, x
D
= x
0
Distillate
x
D
L
x
n

V
y
n+1

Jika L dan V tetap sepanjang kolom, maka
persamaan di atas berupa garis lurus.
McCabe-Thiele Method: Limpahan Molar Tetap (8)
D
n
n
n
n
n
x
V
D
x
V
L
y
1 1
1
+ +
+
+ =
Jika L dan V konstan, maka persamaan di atas berupa garis lurus.
Ini mensyaratkan:
(a) Dua komponen memiliki entalpi penguapan sama dan tetap.
(b) Perubahan kapasitas panas diabaikan dibanding panas
penguapan.
(c) Kolom terisolasi sempurna hingga tidak ada kehilangan
panas.
(d) Tekanan dalam kolom serbasama.

Kondisi ini disebut constant molar overflow.
Feed (L/V)

Boilup

N

n

1

f

Bottoms

Reflux

Z
F
L, x
D
= x
0
x
B
Distillate
x
D
Untuk kondisi ini jumlah uap yang dipindahkan ke
aliran cair dalam tiap tahap sama dengan jumlah cairan
yang dipindahkan ke aliran uap. Sehingga laju alir uap
dan cairan konstan sepanjang bagian.
McCabe-Thiele Method: Rectifying Section Operating Line
y =
L
V
x +
D
V
x
D
The liquid entering stage one is the reflux L and its ratio to the distillate L/D
is the reflux ratio R. If we have constant molar overflow, then R is a constant and
L
V
=
L
L + D
=
L/ D
L / D+ D/ D
=
R
R+1
D
V
=
D
L+ D
=
1
R+1
and
We define this equation as the
operating line of the rectifying
section.
Feed (L/V)

Boilup

N

n

1

f

Bottoms

Reflux

Z
F
L, x
D
= x
0
x
B
Distillate
x
D
In the case of constant molar overflow
we can then drop the stage subscripts:
y
n+1
=
L
n
V
n+1
x
n
+
D
V
n+1
x
D
McCabe-Thiele Method: Operating Line
x

Equilibrium
curve

45

line

n

1

f

Reflux

x
D
= x
0
Distillate
x
D
L, x
n
V, y
n+1

y =
L
V
x +
D
V
x
D
We can then rewrite:
as
y =
R
R+1
x +
1
R+1
x
D
x
0
=x
D
x
1
y
y
1

y
2

y =
1
R+1
x
D
Rectifying Section Operating line
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

If R and X
D
are specified then we can graph the line shown in the
following plot.
McCabe-Thiele Method: Stripping Section
Lx
m
=Vy
m+1
+ Bx
B
Which we can rearrange and use the constant molar overflow assumption to find:

The stripping section extends from the stage just below the feed stage to the bottom stage N.
If we perform a material balance in the light key around the bottom stages of the rectifying section
including the condenser we have:

y =
L
V
x
B
V
x
B
Feed (L/V)

Boilup

N

n

1

f

Bottoms

Reflux

z
F
L, x
D
= x
0
x
B
Distillate
x
D
y =
V
B
+1
V
B
x
1
V
B
x
B and
L
x
m

V
y
m+1

Boilup

N

Bottoms

B, x
B
m+1

L, x
N
V, y
B
Since:

L
V
=
V + B
V
=
V
B
+1
V
B
L = V + B
Then
V
B
is called the boilup ratio.
V
B
=
V
B
We define this equation as the operating line
of the stripping section.
This is also the operating line of
the stripping section .
McCabe-Thiele Method: Stripping Section
x

Equilibrium
curve

45

line

x
N
x
B
y
y
B

y
N

Stripping Section Operating Line
Slope=L/V=(V
B
+1)/V
B
If V
B
and X
B
are specified then we can graph this as the line shown in the
following plot.
y =
V
B
+1
V
B
x
1
V
B
x
B
L
x
m

V
y
m+1

Boilup

N

Bottoms

B, x
B
m+1

L, x
N
V, y
B
x
m
Y
m+1

y =
V
B
+1
V
B
x
1
V
B
x
B
Feed Stage Considerations
In determining the operating lines for the rectifying and stripping sections we needed the bottoms and
distillate compositions and reflux and reboil ratios. The compositions can be independently specified, but
R and V
B
are related to the vapor to liquid ratio in the feed.
F
F
F
F
F
L
L
L
L
L
V
V < V
V
V
V
V
V = V
V = V
F
+V
V = F+V
V > F+V
L > F+L
L = F+ L
L = L + L
F
L = L
L < L
Subcooled Liquid
Bubble Point Liquid
Partially Vaporized
Dew Point Vapor
Superheated Vapor
Feed Conditions
So except in the cases where the feed is a supercooled liquid or superheated
vapor the boilup is related to the reflux by the material balance:
V = L + DV
F
V
B

V
B
=
L + DV
F
B
Distillation operations can be specified by the reflux ratio or boilup ratio
although the reflux ratio (or R/R
min
) is most often specified.
Dividing by B gives the boilup ratio:
L = B +V
V = D+ L
V
F
+ L
F
= D+ B
V = V +V
F
L = L + L
F
V
F
+ L L = D+ B
V
F
+ L L = D+ L V
V = L + DV
F
Consider the cases where the feed is not a supercooled liquid or a superheated vapor:
Mass balance around the reboiler:
Mass balance around the condenser:
Mass balance around the column:
Vapor entering the rectifying section:
Liquid entering the stripping section:
Substitute this into the column balance:
Substitute in the reboiler balance:
In other words, the vapor
entering the rectifying section
is the vapor entering the condenser
minus the feed vapor flow rate.
The q-line
First, we define the parameter q by:
q =
L L
F
yV = Lx Bx
B
yV = Lx+ Dx
D
Subtracting the two operating lines:
Gives:
y V V ( )= L L ( )x + Dx
D
+ Bx
B
Using a material balance in the LK: Dx
D
+ Bx
B
= Fz
F
Using a material balance around the feed stage to elminate vapor flow rates:
F +V + L = V + L
Simplifying and using the definition of q results in the q-line:
y =
q
q 1
|
\

|
.
| x
z
F
q 1
|
\

|
.
| x = z
F
y = z
F
minus
y V V ( )= L L ( )x + Fz
F
V V = F + L L
y F + L L ( )= L L ( )x + Fz
F
The q-line has slope q/(q-1)
and intercepts the 45 degree
line at y=z
F

Construction Lines for McCabe-Thiele Method
Equilibrium
curve

45

line

x=z
F
x
B
y
y
B

y
N

Stripping Section:
Operating line
Slope=L/V=(V
B
+1)

/V
B

x
D
Rectifying Section:
Operating line
Slope=L/V=R/(R+1)<1

q-line
y =
L
V
x +
D
V
x
D
y =
L
V
x
B
V
x
B
y =
q
q 1
|
\

|
.
| x
z
F
q 1
|
\

|
.
|
Feed Stage Location Using McCabe-Thiele
Equilibrium
curve

x=z
F
x
B
y
y
B

y
N

x
D
Equilibrium
curve

x=z
F
x
B
y
y
B

y
N

x
D
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
Feed stage located one tray too low.
Feed stage located one tray too high.
Construction Lines for McCabe-Thiele Method
Equilibrium
curve

x=z
F
x
B
y
y
B

y
N

x
D
1
2
3
4
Summary
This lecture:
We extended the analsis used for adsorption and stripping to binary distillation.
We described a typical binary distillation configuration.
We made definitions such as reflux ratio, constant molar overflow, etc.
We described operating lines.
We plotted the equilibrium curve.
We stepped through stages to show the change in composition as you go through
the column.

Next lecture well continue our discussion of binary distillation and the
McCabe Thiele method.