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OVERVIEW BASIC CONCEPT

Yuni Kusminanti, 2011

TOPIK
Basic concept in safety : definition of Hazards Accident Risk Loss

Basic Concept

Work process Material

Individual Hazard Risk Incident/Accident

Work environment

Outcome
Consequences

Definition
Harm: physical injury or damage to health, property or to the environment Hazard: source of potential harm or a situation with a potential for harm Hazardous event: event which can cause harm Hazard identification: process of recognizing that a hazard exists and defining its characteristics Risk: Combination of the frequency, or probability, of occurrence and the consequence of a specified hazardous event

Definition Hazards

Hazards anything (including work practices or procedures) that has potential to harm the health or safety of a person (Workcover, Australia)

a source or a situation with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill-health, damage to property, damage to the environment, or a combination of these (AS 4801)

Definition

hazard represents a source of energy with the potential of causing immediate injury to personnel and damage to equipment, environment or structure (Zimolong and Trimpop, ILO encyclopedia )

Definisi

Hazard (bahaya) adalah sifat-sifat intrinsic dari suatu zat atau proses yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan atau membahayakan. Hal ini termasuk bahan kimia (toksisitas, korosifitas), fisik (daya ledak, listrik, dapat terbakar), biologis (dapat menginfeksi), dan lain-lain. Definisi dari hazard (bahaya) mengindikasikan adanya suatu ancaman, dan hazard bisa hadir tanpa risiko

Hazard Types
Physical Chemicals Biological Mechanical/electrical Psychological Ergonomics

Komponen yang terkandung dalam bahaya

Sifat-sifat intrinsic dari bahaya Sifat alamiah dari peralatan atau wujud material (seperti uap, mist, cair, debu). Hubungan pajanan-efek (exposure-effect relationship) Aliran/jalur bahaya dari proses ke individu Kondisi dan frekuensi penggunaannya Aspek perilaku pekerja yang mempengaruhi pajanan bahaya Mekanisme aksinya

Risiko (risk)

adalah likelihood (kemungkinan) bahwa bahaya dan cedera karena suatu hazard akan terjadi pada individu tertentu atau kelompok individu yang terpajan bahaya. Ukuran dari risiko tergantung pada seberapa mungkin (how likely) hazard tersebut membahayakan dan besarannya (magnitude)

Definisi lain dari risiko

adalah (the probability of a specific adverse effect to occur) : Risiko adalah probabilitas/kemungkinan dari suatu efek buruk tertentu untuk terjadi (Holmberg, et al., ) ILO Encyclopedia

Hazard and risk


Hazard
Inherent properties: toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness Factors relating to exposure such as the probability, duration, frequency and intensity of exposure

Risk

HAZARDS & RISK

Komponen yang terkandung dalam risiko


Variasi individu dalam susceptibility (kerentanan) banyaknya orang yang terpajan frekuensi pajanan derajat risiko individu kemungkinan untuk menghilangkan/mengganti dengan zat/proses yang lebih kurang berbahaya kemungkinan untuk mencapai level yang aman tanggung jawab financial dari suatu bahaya (the financial liability of hazard) opini publik dan tekanan kelompok tanggung jawab sosial

Risk formulation
Risk = harm/injury x probability of injury Harm/injury = Hazard x Exposure Exposure = Concentration x Duration Risk = Hazard x Concentration x Duration x Probability of Injury

Risk = Consequence x Likelihood


R=CXL

RISK MANAGEMENT

Opportunity to control the risk

ACCIDENT THEORY

ACCIDENT
AN UNPLANNED, UNEXPECTED EVENT THAT INTERFERES WITH OR INTERRUPTS NORMAL ACTIVITY & POTENTIALLY LEADS TO PERSONAL INJURY OR DOLLAR LOSS (EQUIPMENT DAMAGE).

TERMS
ACCIDENT
Result from contact with a substance or source of energy above the threshold limit of the body or structure

INCIDENT
an undesired event which could or does result in a loss

TYPE OF ACCIDENT
MINOR ACCIDENTS :
Such as paper cuts to fingers or dropping a box of materials.

MORE SERIOUS ACCIDENT


more serious accidents that cause injury or damage to equipment or property. Such as a forklift dropping a load or someone falling off a ladder

ACCIDENT THAT OCCUR OVER AN EXTENDED TIME FRAME


Accidents that occur over an extended time frame: such as hearing loss or an illness resulting from exposure to chemicals

THE ACCIDENT NEAR-MISS

Also know as a Near Hit An accident that does not quite result in injury or damage (but could have). Remember, a near-miss is just as serious as an accident!

LOSS
Cedera manusia accident incident citra

Nilai saham Peluang pasar

Kerusakan materi

Kerugian produksi

Ganti rugi

Accident Ratio Study

1974/1975 James Tye

1 3 50 80 400

serious minor First aid


Damage only Near misses Major injury

1 29

Minor injury No injury accident

1931 Heinrich

300

Identify Potential Hazards


Truck trailer moves,driver jumps to ground And truck rolls over him/her4

1 3 50

fatal Major injury Minor injury

Truck trailer moves,driver jumps to Ground and breaks leg Truck trailer moves,driver jumps to ground And sprains ankle

Lift Truck is driven into truck Trailer and trailer moves


Wheel chocks not in place at Rear wheels of trailer

3000 near miss

30000 hazards Unsafe act/condition

ACCIDENT THEORY
Digunakan sebagai metodologi ilmiah dalam investigasi kecelakaan Tujuannya
Membantu menentukan penyebab kecelakaan sampai pada root causes Menentukan klasifikasi/jenis kecelakaan yang logis Menentukan pencegahan yang tepat

Ancestry Environment

Fault of Person

Domino Theory

Unsafe Condition Unsafe Act

ACCIDENT

HEINDRICH MODEL 1931

LOSS

BIRD AND LOFTUS MODEL


LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL
Kelemahan fungsi-fungsi manajemen, Leadership, pengawasan, standard kerja, standard performance, correction error.

INDIRECT / Basic Cause


Personal knowledge, skill, motivation, physical or capability work problems. Work standard design, abnormal use

DIRECT / Immmediate Cause


UNSAFE ACTS UNSAFE CONDITION

ACCIDENT LOSS

THREE CAUSES LEVELS

JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS OSHA 3071

STRUKTUR ACCIDENT

WHY BEHAVIOR APPROACH ?

TREND IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION

A practical guide for behavioural change in the oil and gas industry, Keil Centre, UK