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EMBRYOLOGY OF THE GIT

Early development
The embryonic gut is formed from the

upper part of the yolk sac The Head fold formation , Tail fold formation, and Lateral folds,result in that the upper part of the yolk sac is taken to inside of these folds ,and to form a tubelike structure The gut tube is lined by Endoderm,and surrounded by splanchnic mesoderm.

Parts of the Gut


The gut has three(3) parts:
Foregut.within the head fold Midgut..in the middle and

communicate with the yolk sac by Vitelline duct.


Hindgut.within the tailfold

Foregut
The most rostral part forms the oral

cavity and the embryonic pharynx. The following part forms the esophagus,and gives rise to Respiratory diverticulum.The wide communication between the two is partitioned by tracheoesophageal septum. The caudal part of foregut forms the stomach and the upper part of Duodenum.

Oral Cavity
Stomatodeum: primitive mouth. Oropharyngeal

membrane, ruptures at the 5th week. Development of the tongue: Lingual (mandibular) swellings + tuberculum impar + Hypobrancheal eminence (copula) Development of the palate Linguo-gingival and labio-gingival sulci, gum and dental lamina and development of the teeth

Gingiva and Teeth

Salivary glands
The salivary glands arise bilaterally as the

result of epithelialmesenchymal interactions between the ectodermal epithelial lining of the oral cavity and the subjacent neural crestderived mesenchyme. They form as solid diverticula that undergo branching morphogenesis, the whole tree-like structure later acquiring a lumen. The blind ends of the branches form acini, whose cells differentiate firstly to form serous cells and, postnatal, mucus-secreting cells (except for the parotid gland, which remains mainly or entirely serous).

Esophageal Abnormalities
Tracheoesophageal fistula
Esophageal stenosis Congenital hiatal hernia

Stomach
Fusiform dilation
Rotation of stomach: 90 degrees,in clockwise

direction,so the left side becomes anterior surface and the right side to face posteriorly. Rotation along antero-posterior axis: the cephalic end is shifted to the left and down,and the caudal end is shifted to the right and up. The original anterior border becomes the lesser curvature and the posterior border becomes the greater curvature.

Duodenum
It is formed by terminal part of the foregut and

proximal part of the midgut. It forms a C-shaped tube that shifts to the right. Its dorsal mesentery fuses with the dorsal abdominal wall,and the duodenum becomes in a retroperitoneal position. The epithelial lining proliferates, so the lumen is temporarily obliterated,then recanilized. It is supplied from arteries of the foregut and midgut.

Liver
It arises from the distal end of the fore

gut as an outgrowth called Hepatic diverticulum or the Liver bud The bud grows and proliferate within the septum transversum The proximal part of the bud forms the bile duct.,wich gives rise to a small outgrowth that forms the Gallbladder and the cystic duct

Pancreas
It is formed by two buds :dorsal pancreatic bud and

ventral pancreatic bud that arise from the end of the foregut,close to the origin of the hepatic bud. The ventral bud moves dorsally and comes to lie below the dorsal bud Each bud grows and braches and form a tree of duct system The ventral bud forms the uncinate process and the inferior part of the head,the rest is derived from the dorsal bud. The two duct systems fused.The main pancreatic duct is formed by the dorsal part.

MIDGUT
It forms an elongated loop
It is connected by the Vitelline duct to the

yolk sac. It is suspended from the dorsal abdominal wall by mesentery It is supplied by the superior mesenteric artery

Midgut.cont.
There is rapid elongation of the intestinal

loop.primary intestinal loop, with cephalic limb and caudal limb Appearance of a small dilation..the caecum,in the caudal limb. The cephalic limb gives rise to half of the duodenum,jejunum and most of the ileum The caudal limb becomes part of the ileum,cecum appendix, ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon.

Midgut .cont.
Herniation of the intestinal loop into the

extraembryonic cavity..physiological hernia Rotation of the intestinal loop 270 degrees in counterclokwise direction Return of the intestinal loop parts to the abdominal cavity. Obliteration of the vitelline duct Repositioning and new attachment of the mesentery .

HINDGUT
It gives rise to :distal third of transverse

colon,descending colon,sigmoid ,rectum and upper part of the anal canal The terminal part of the hindgut is dilated and forms the cloaca,to which the allantois enters ventrally.This part is divided by uro-rectal septum into: anorectal canal ,dorsally and uro-genital sinus ,ventrally.

Anal canal
The terminal end of the hindgut is limited from

the exterior by cloacal membrane. In the anorectal region ,the coacal membrane is surrounded by swelling from proliferating mesenchymal tissue,creating a depressionthe proctodeum,lined by ectoderm. The cloacal membrane ruptures to establish continuity with the exterior. Punctinate line marks the bounderies between the parts.

CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES
Vitelline duct abnormalities :
Meckels diverticulum Enterocystoma

Umbilical fistula
Omphalocele

Congenital umbilical hernia

Congenital abnormalitiescon.
Gut rotation defects :
90 degrees rotation Reverse rotation Duplication of intestinal loop and cysts . Gut atresia and stenosis Imprforate anus Congenital megacolon