Anda di halaman 1dari 17

Organizational communication

Ademola J. Ajuwon, MPH, PhD Department of Health Promotion & Education, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan Email:

Communication is the process of exchanging or transmitting information, ideas or messages between two or more persons Communication can be done formally and informally; through verbal and non-verbal means Organizational communication refers to the process, context and direction of communication within an organization

Five components of communication

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sender: (source of message). This is the person who initiates a communication process. Message: This is the information, ideas, message, meant for transmission to one person or a group of persons Channel: This is the medium through which a message is sent from the sender to someone, letter, poster, radio, television newspapers and telephone. Receiver: This is the person or group for whom the message is meant Effects/Feed back: This is the response, or reactions elicited from the receiver of a message to the sender Effective communication takes place when the message sent elicit desired feed back. Beak-down can occur in any or all of these components

Purpose of communication
Inform Educate

Motivate Promote

Types of organizational communication

Formal_ official Informal_ Interpersonal/unofficial

Types of formal methods of communication

The Chain or hierarchical pattern; information flow, "from the top down," in military and some types of business organizations. The Wheel can be compared with a typical autocratic organization, meaning one-man rule and limited employee participation. The All-Channel network, characterized by free-flow of communication in the organization encourages all of its members to become involved in group decision processes.

Direction of organizational communication

Top bottom_One way Top-up-Bottom up_ Two way

The one-way communication method

Formal communication proceeds from superior to subordinate Assumptions: 1. Only superior officer can initiate communication based on higher qualifications, level of expertise and experience 2. The superior officer has responsibility for ensuring the information being communicated is clear and understandable to subordinate officers 3. There is no need for two-way communication except they are initiated from the superior officer 4. Messages from superiors are considered to be more important than those from subordinates 5. The communication channels should not be cluttered by messages from subordinates but should remain open and free for messages moving down the chain of command.

What are the merits & limitations of one-way method?

1. Communication is faster than two-way communication. 2. The one-way method appears neat and efficient to an outside observer 3. Recognizes distinct line of authority within the organization 4, Boost the ego of the manager Limitations 1. Kills initiative within the organization 2. Members do not feel that their contribution is valued If speed is necessary, if a businesslike appearance of the organization is important, if a manager does not want his mistakes recognized, and if he wants to protect his power, then one-way communication seems preferable

Two-way method of communication

Information can flow from both top and bottom Both managers and officers can initiate and respond to communication Assumptions 1. All persons within the organization can initiate communication

Merits of the two-way method

Merits 1. Receivers are more sure of themselves and make more correct judgments of how right or wrong they are in the two-way system 2. Gives all persons within the organization a sense of being valued

Limitations of the two-way method

The sender feels psychologically under attack in the twoway system, because his receivers pick up his mistakes and oversights and point them out to him. The two-way method is relatively noisier and looks more disorderly. If the manager wants to get his message across, or if he is concerned about his receivers' feeling that they are participating and are making a contribution, the two-way system is better

Inter-personal communication
Inter-personal communication within the organization may be through verbal or non-verbal means: Verbal messages involve use of words, non-verbal involves means other than words

Common non-verbal means of communication are: 1. Use of gestures 2. Facial expressions 3. Certain postures or body language 4. Dressing 5. Silence (?)

Interpretation of non-verbal messages

Decoding non-verbal messages are sometimes difficult; many factors affect correct interpretation of non-verbal messages: 1. 2. Physical capacities to see, hear, smell, taste, and touch affects interpretation Relationship between sender and receiver of nonverbal messages


Cognitive ability resulting from age, education, education, experience

The 7 C of effective communication

1- Conciseness: Provide information that is necessary and important through use of few words 2- Concreteness: Message should be based on facts not guesses 3- Clarity: Messages explicit meaning that is not subject to different interpretation 4- Completeness: The message must have complete meaning that will providing the sufficient information to its reader. 5- Courtesy: Message must be emphasize courteous tone and must give some compliments and benefits to its readers. 6- Correctness: The message conveyed must be checked for correctness and should be free from all grammatical errors 7- Consideration: There must be proper consideration in the message for receivers

Communication is an important component of every organization The best approach is to encourage twoway communication method in order to get the best from staff of the organization

Dr. Aderonke Olumide You all for your attention