= 1 ) ( 100 VE
/ 1 k
r
Z
Z
C r
D
s
(
= 1 ) ( 96 VE
/ 1 k
r
Z
Z
C r
D
s
Capacity
From the PD, VE, Suction Pressure and compressibilty factors,
the equivalent capacity of a compressor is calculated.
Net capacity of a compressor in cfd @ 14.4 psia
simplified for Z
14.4
= 1
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
)
) Z )(
in
Ib
14.4(
)xZ
ft
MMft
)x( )x(10
in
Ib
xPs(
100
VE%
min/d)x ( 1440 x )
min
ft
( PD
( MMcfd
s
14. 4
2
3
3
6
2
3
=
)
Z
10 x Ps x VE x PD
( MMcfd
s
6
=
Capacity
For instances where the flowrate is required to be calculated
based on other measurement standards, modifications to the
MMscfd equations are required,
for a T
L
and P
L
basis (L standard conditions used for calculations or contract)
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
)
Z
Z
)x(
T
T
)x(
P
14.4
x( )
) Z )(
in
Ib
14.4(
)xZ
ft
MMft
)x( )x(10
in
Ib
xPs(
100
VE%
min/d)x ( 1440 x )
min
ft
( PD
( MMcfd
s
L
s
L
L
s
14. 4
2
3
3
6
2
3
=
Discharge Temperature
A common method used to estimate the gas discharge
temperature from a cylinder is by using,
Temperature unit in Rankine or Kelvin
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
) (r T T
k
1  k
s D =
Rod Loading
Impact of compressor maximum speed and load carrying
capacity
Load carrying capacity can be further assessed based on
horsepower and rod loading
The rod loading is established to limit static and inertial loads
on the crankshaft, connrods, frame, piston rod, bolting and
projected bearing surfaces
A design with a non reversal rod loading results in bearing
wear and tear
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Rod Loading calculations
Load in compression and tension
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
A
r
A
p
P
d P
s
Direction of travel
A
r
A
p
P
d P
s
Direction of travel
Load = P
d
(A
p
) P
s
(A
p
A
r
)
= (P
d
P
s
)A
p
+ P
s
A
r
Load = P
d
(A
p
A
r
) P
s
A
p
= (P
d
P
s
)A
p
 P
d
A
r
Horsepower
Charts are available to aid the detailed evaluation of a
reciprocating compressor required power input
Usually a nett value (inclusive of mechanical efficiency)
Volumes to be handled has to be corrected to the actual
temperature at the inlet of each compression stage
For intercoolers, the interstage pressure losses has to be
taken into account (estimated using intermediate pressure ratio
calculations,  35% for subsequent stages)
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Bhp Per Million Curve
Mechanical efficiency 95%
Gas Velocity through valve 3000 fpm
Compression ratio, k
B
h
p
/
M
M
c
f
d
(
1
4
.
4
p
s
i
a
a
n
d
s
u
c
t
i
o
n
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
B
h
p
/
M
M
c
f
d
(
1
4
.
4
p
s
i
a
a
n
d
s
u
c
t
i
o
n
t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Compression ratio, k
Bhp Per Million Curve
Mechanical efficiency 95%
Gas Velocity through valve 3000 fpm
Horsepower
Corrected horsepower based on TL and PL is then applied to
the values obtained from the charts
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Mcfd) )x(Zavg)(M
T
T
)x(
14.4
P
)(
MMcfd
Bhp
( Bhp
L
s L
=
Horsepower correction factors
Low intake pressure
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
) Mcfd)(F )x(Zavg)(M
T
T
)x(
14.4
P
)(
MMcfd
Bhp
( Bhp LIP
L
s L
=
Horsepower correction factors
Gas Specific Gravity
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
) Mcfd)(F )x(Zavg)(M
T
T
)x(
14.4
P
)(
MMcfd
Bhp
( Bhp SG
L
s L
=
Horsepower correction factors
High Speed Operations
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Gas Specific Gravity Percent horsepower
increase for high speed
units
0.50.8 4
0.9 5
1.0 6
1.1 8
1.5 10
Example
Compress 2 MMScfd of gas measured at 14.65 psia and 60
o
F. Intake pressure is
100psia, and 100
o
F. Discharge pressure is 900 psia. The gas has a specific gravity
of 0.8 (23MW). Assume an intercooling temperature of 120
o
F. The compressibility
factors for the gas at suction, Z
s
, discharge, Z
d
and average, Z
avg
are given as
follows:
1stage => 0.98, 0.97, 0.975; 2
nd
stage=> 0.94 , 0.92, 0.93;
Find the required horsepower. Estimate how many cylinders and their diameters
1. Compression ratio
for a 2 stage compression, the compression ratio per stage =3
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
)
psia 100
psia 900
( r =
9 r =
Example (cont)
2. Discharge pressures
1
st
stage = 100 x 3 = 300 psia
Less intermediate pressure losses (5 psi) = 3005 = 295 psi
Recalculate the second stage compression ratio = 900/295 = 3.05
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Example (cont)
3. k value
For MW = 23,
SG = 0.8 @ 150
o
F
k= 1.21
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
1.21
Example (cont)
4. Discharge temperature (1
st
stage)
Average cylinder temperature can be taken as 160
o
F
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
) (r T T
k
1  k
s D =
F R
o o
217 23 . 677 TD = =
) (3 ) R ( 67 . 559 T
1.21
1  1.21
o
D =
Example (cont)
4. Discharge temperature (2
nd
stage)
Average cylinder temperature can be taken as 182
o
F
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
) (r T T
k
1  k
s D =
F R
o o
244 4 . 703 TD = =
) (3.05 ) R 67 . 579 ( T
1.21
1  1.21
o
D =
Example (cont)
5. Horsepower (1
st
stage), at r = 3, k=1.21
Bhp/MMscfd = 63.5
Horsepower (2
nd
stage), at r = 3.05, k =1.21
Bhp/MMscfd = 64.5
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
63.5 Bhp/MMscfd
64.5 Bhp/MMscfd
2
nd
stage
1
st
stage
Example (cont)
6. Expression of horsepower on the basis of T
L
and P
L
,
1
st
stage
Bhp/MMscfd = 63.5 (14.65/14.4)(560/520)0.975
Bhp = 2 MMscfd x 67.8 = 135.6
2
nd
stage
Bhp/MMscfd = 64.5 (14.65/14.4)(580/520)0.93
Bhp = 2MMscfd x 68.1 = 136.3
Total horsepower = 135.6 + 136.2
= 271.8 bhp
compare to using the earlier simplified equation (285 Bhp)
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
Example (cont)
6. Cylinder specifications (diameter)
Qa = VE x Displaced volumetric flowrate
Displaced Volumetric flowrate = 2/ 0.93 = 2.15MMscfd or 0.00149MMscfm
Displaced volume = A cycle x stroke x N/2 (single acting)
= t/4 x D
p
2
x SN/1728
for a stroke of 15, N=450rpm, Dp>2
Dp = 4.125 ft = 49.5 or 4 cylinders of 12.5 each
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
) in nt, displaceme (piston
) in volume, (clearance
C
3
3
=
(
= 1 ) ( 96 VE
/ 1 k
r
Z
Z
C r
D
s
(
= 1 ) 3 (
97 . 0
98 . 0
14 . ) 3 ( 96 VE
21 . 1 / 1
% 93 VE =
(4)(1728)
) )( )(D (stroke)(N
PD
2
t
=
Example (cont)
6. Cylinder specifications (rod loading)
API 618 => Rod design unit load < 8000 psi
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor PerformancePd Compressor
The characteristics of a centrifugal compressor are determined by
the impeller and diffuser geometry. In simplistic terms, kinetic
energy is imparted to the gas via the impeller by centrifugal
forces. The diffuser then reduces the velocity and converts the
kinetic energy to pressure energy.
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors
A singlewheel unit used in 100 150,000 ICFM applications
Multiwheel considered fro inlet volumes between 500
200,000 ICFM
Speeds start from 3000 rpm
(limited by impeller stress)
Prime movers include electric
motors, steam/gas turbines
Service, operational requirements and economic factors are
considered in selecting the type of compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal compressors approximates the constant head
variable volume machine
Axial compressors are a low head, high flow machines
A compressor is part of a system in which its performance is
dictated by the system resistance
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Calculations
The three items usually requiring calculation for a centrifugal
compressor are
Shaft horsepower
Operating speed
Discharge temperature
Power and speed are dependant upon the required head for
compression, which in turn varies directly with the absolute suction
temperature, and inversely with the molecular weight of the gas to
be compressed.
Centrifugal Compressors
80
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressor Components
81
Centrifugal Compressors
Inlet Volute and First Stage Impeller
82
Centrifugal Compressors
Diffuser, diaphragm, 2
nd
stage,
labyrinths
83
Centrifugal Compressors
Double Flow Compressor
84
Centrifugal Compressors
Sidestream Compressor
85
Centrifugal Compressors
Abradable Labyrinth Seal
Tight clearance and turbulence creates
resistance to leakage flows.
86
Centrifugal Compressors
Fabricated Compressor Casing
87
Centrifugal Compressors
Fabricated Compressor Casing
88
Centrifugal Compressors
Fabricated Compressor Casing
Gas engines
Gas turbines
Electric motors
Diesel Engines
Prime Movers
Centrifugal Compressors
Performance depicted by a family of curves displaying operating
range of flows, efficiency, power and speed
Performance envelop / map
Shape of performance curve depend on the physical design of
the impeller
The performance of a compressor at speeds other than design
can be determined through the Affinity Laws/Fan Laws
The fan laws are however limited to single and multistage
compression at low compression ratios and low March numbers
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
There are three import elements to a compressor curve that need to be
considered;
Slope of the curve
Choke (or Stonewall)
Surge
Centrifugal Compressors
Slope
The velocity vectors at the impeller discharge determine the
slope of the QH curve
Centrifugal Compressors
Degree of backward
lean
V
rel
V
V
t
Slope
The head increase with decreasing flow is what causes the basic
slope of the centrifugal compressor performance curve.
Centrifugal Compressors
Slope
The backward leaning blade is normally used. It has the highest
stage efficiency but sacrifices head. Blade angle & tip width are
considered to achieve desired head and efficiency.
Centrifugal Compressors
Choke or Stonewall
Occurs when increasing flow results in a rapid decrease in head. This
occurs because the gas is approaching sonic conditions, that is the
Mach Number is approaching 1.0.
Very high flow rates have a negative effect upon efficiency and can
be very damaging; controlled by the impellor inlet geometry.
Centrifugal Compressors
Surge
Surge flow has been defined as peak head. Below the surge point
head decreases with a corresponding decrease in flow. Surge is
particularly damaging to a machine and must be avoided.
During surge, flow reversal takes
place resulting in reversed
stressing of nearly all compressor
components.
Centrifugal Compressors
Surge
Separation in one of the components of a stage will result in a
condition of stall for that stage. Frequently this flow separation will
start in one of more blades and continuously shift around the
impeller at a slow rotational rate just before full surge occurs. At
higher speeds the compressor may go directly from a stable condition
to one of flow separation on all blades and full flow reversal. Note
that Rotating Stall can also originate in the diffuser.
The flow separation with the higher frictional losses result in a
positively sloped curve.
Since the system resistance curve is also positively sloped the system
becomes unstable.
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors
10 HP/P1
15000 rpm
14000 rpm
1300 rpm
15700 rpm
8 HP/P1
8 HP/P1
4HP/P1
Flow MMSCFD/P1 ( 60
o
F, 14.7 Psia )
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
R
a
t
i
o
P
2
/
P
1
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Parameters affecting rate:
Q Vs. q
p
, Bhp and P
2
/P
1
Centrifugal Compressors
90
100
110
90
100
110
P2/P1
P1 constant
P2 constant
P2/P1
Volume Flow Rate
q
p
90
100
Volume Flow Rate
60
70
80
P2const
BHp
Volume Flow Rate
P1onst
100
110
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Performance estimation through available performance charts
(all centrifugal compressor performance are based on flows that
are converted into inlet or actual cubic feet per minute ICFM
or ACFM, due to the sensitivity of the impeller wheel to inlet
volume, compression ratio and specific speeds)
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Gas Compression HP Calculations
Use of basic thermodynamics relations ie. Ideal Gas Law, 1
st
Law
Shaft Work
Actual conditions may approach ideal conditions
Compression conditions: Isothermal, Isentropic and Polytropic
Compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Calculating performance for more accurate information on
compressor head, gas horsepower and discharge temperature
All values for pressure and temperature in these calculations are
given in absolute values and the volume from rates are in ACFM
or ICFM
The overall isentropic head across the compressor (nonstaging)
or
where, Z= Z
avg
and k is evaluated at the average suction and discharge
temperatures
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
)
144
1
(
P
) Z (T
)
MW
1545
( Q
1
1 1
w =
(
(

.

\





.

\

=
1
P
P
k
1  k
MW
ZRT
H
/ ) 1 (
1
2
k k
is
k
k
R Zavg T
k
k
is
) 1 (
) 1 )( )( )( 3 . 53 (
H
1
1
Centrifugal Compressors
The horsepower can now be calculated
Where w is the mass flowrate (Ib/min), q
is
is the isentropic efficiency
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
is
is wH
Ghp r
q
=
) )( )( 09 . 53 ( Q m w = =

Centrifugal Compressors
The approximate theoretical discharge temperature is calculated
from:
The actual discharge temperature can be calculated using,
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
(
(
(
(
(

.

\

= A
1
P
P
T T
) / 1 (
1
2
1 ideal
k k
ideal 1 2 T T T A + =
is
k k
q
(
(
(
(
(
(




.

\

= A
1
) / 1 (
P
P
T T
1
2
1 actual
actual 1 2 T T T A + =
Centrifugal Compressors
Polytropic performance consideration
The equations for head and gas horsepower based upon
polytropic compression
or
The polytropic and isentropic heads are related through
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
p q
(
(
(
(
=
1  k
k
1 n
n


.

\

=




.

\

1
) / 1 (
P
P
1)/n MW(n
RT Z
H
1
2 1 avg
p
n n
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
p
p wH
Ghp r
q
=
is
is p
p
H
H
q
q
=


.

\

=




.

\

1
) / 1 (
P
P
1)/n MW(n
T 1545Z
H
1
2 1 avg
p
n n
Centrifugal Compressors
Bhp is calculated with the incorporation of mechanical losses
(friction, bearing losses, seals and gearing losses)
Bhp = Ghp + Mechanical losses
or
Bhp = Ghp/q
m
When a Ph diagram is available for the gas to be compressed,
it should be used to obtain more accurate results
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
When a Ph diagram is available for the gas to be compressed,
it should be used to obtain more accurate results
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
P
h
P
2
P
1
2
s
2
a
Ah
a
Ah
s
1 2is h h h = A is
1 2 h
h
h
is
is
+
A
=
q
ft.Ib/BTU) 778 ( h H
(ft) head isentropic to Conversion
2is A = is
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
p
p wH
Ghp r
q
=
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
is
is wH
Ghp r
q
=
Capacity Controls
Suction Throttling
Speed Variation
Recycling
Centrifugal Compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
Standard volume flow is commonly used in compressor
calculations due to its independence actual gas pressures and
temperatures
gas of volume specific and factor conversion  53.09
MMSCFD flow, volume standard  Q
gas of gravity specific  g
where,
(Ibm/min) Q m ) ( 09 . 53 =

Compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
To use ACFM ( function of mass flowrate and the specific
volume at suction conditions),
R re, temperatu standard  520
psia pressure, standard  14.7
R suction, at re temperatu absolute  T1
psia suction, at pressure absolute  P1
factor ility compressib  Z1
/Ibm ft air, of volume specific  13.08
/Ibm ft volume, specific std  V1
/Ibm ft volume, specific standard 
where,
)
520
1
)(
1
7 . 14
( and
08 . 13
3
3
3
1 1
Vs
T
P
Z V V Vs s = =
Compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
ACFM:
The ACFM is important when estimating compressor
performance
1 V m ACFM

=
Compressors
Compressor PerformanceCentrifugal Compressor
A centrifugal compressor is used in a gas plant to recompress residue
gas. The plant is producing 15 MMSCFD of residue gas and is selling the
gas to a pipeline company always operating at 1000psig. The plant sends
the gas to the compressor at 500psig. Given the following data, determine
the horsepower used.
Elevation: sea level
Ambient Temperature: 65 F
Gas Specific Gravity: 0.6
Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.25
Average Compressibility Factor: 0.9897
Discharge Gas Temperature: 200 F
Suction Gas Temperature: 95 F
Efficiency: 98%
Example
Compressor Performance
a. Isentropic efficiency
R = P
discharge
/ P
suction
= 1000 + 14.7 / 500 + 14.7
= 1.97
T
2
= 200 F + 460 = 660 R
T
1
= 95 F + 460 = 550 R
q
isen
= T
1
[ (R
(k1/k)
1) / (T2T1) ]
= 0.77
Example
Compressor Performance
b. Head Required:
H = 35 433 ftIbf / Ibm
c. Mass Flow:
M = 477.81 Ibm/min
Example
(
=
1 ) (
1
1
k
k
1
2
avg
1
P
P
Z
53.3T
k
k
H
(Ibm/min) Q m ) ( 09 . 53 =

Compressor Performance
d. HP Required:
HP = 680
Example
)
1
( )
1
(
mech
x
isen
x
33000
n) ate(Ibm/mi MassFlowr x Head(adia)
P H
q q
=
Compressor Performance