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Facilities Engineering

Transportation and Storage


EMB 5443

Ir. Dr. Mohd Shiraz Aris
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi Petronas.
Compressors
Important in the Oil and Gas industry to deliver sales gas or gas
injection for reservoir oil recovery

Apart from the design, the controls
and operation of compressors are significant
due to changing operating conditions with
time

2 common types of compressors include
a. reciprocating
b. centrifugal
Compressors
Compressor Performance
Sales Gas

Gas Injection

Instrument Air

Fuel Supply

Refrigeration
Reciprocating Compressors

Highly efficient
Ability to handle high pressure ratios
Fluctuating conditions

Centrifugal Compressors

High flow rates
Smaller in size
Lesser moving components
Compressors
Compressor Performance
Compressors
Compressors
Equipment involves large investments, large fuel and operation
expenses and potential downtime with substantial penalties from
lost of deferred production

Also effects project construction schedules due to long delivery
times

First step in designing a compressor installation is creating the
process flow diagram

The second step is translating information into equipment
selection

Compressor Selection
Compressor Performance
Process Flow Diagram
15 Mscfd
300 psia
110 F
30 Mscfd
100 psia
90 F
1
st
Stage
2170 Bhp
2
nd
Stage
3312 Bhp
10 gpm
5 gpm
Gas compressor

Gas scrubbers

Coolers

Operational Controls

Safety Systems for Equipment and Personnel Protection

Utility Systems

Piping and Supporting Structures ( including foundation )


Compression System
Widespread and significant impact on facility process

High pressure gas is injected to allow reservoir pressure to force
hydrocarbons to the surface

Gas lift reemerges with production and handled by the low
pressure system ( excess separator capacity required)


Gas Lift
Applications
Positive Displacement (P-D)
Reciprocating very flexible, efficient and reliable. Can handle a
wide range of gas densities.
Screw
Often the machine of choice for compressed air, refrigeration,
wide range of process gases

Dynamic
Centrifugal very versatile
Axial - high flows, low pressures

Compressor Design
All positive displacement compressors work on the same principles
and have the same loss mechanisms, although the relative
magnitude of these losses will vary between types. Consider, for
example

leakage losses

gas cooling

Work recovery

API 618 applies to reciprocating machines.
Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
General Considerations

Ratings vary from fractional to more than 20 000 hp

Pressure range from low vacuum at suction to >30 000 psi at
discharge

Single or multi-stage (depending on overall compression ratio)

Compression ratio per stage generally limited by T
discharge
(< 4)

Intercooling important for multistage arrangements

Clean gas is a requirement to avoid wear and tear

Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Motor driven process
recip compressor
Integral gas engine driven
recip compressor
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Compressor Design and Construction
Cylinders
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Design and Construction
Construction

Pistons, Rods &Packing
Compressor Design and Construction
Construction

Valves and Rings
Compressor Design and Construction
Construction
The range of compressors from one manufacturer
Reciprocating Gas Compressor Specifications - Frame Data

FRAME M * A * B D E F
No.of cranks 1 4 1 6 1 6 2 6 2 6 2 6
Max. absorbed shaft
power
KW 1,800 3,500 6,500 11,500 20,000 34,000
Stroke Minimum mm 130 180 240 300 360 420
Maximum mm 170 220 280 340 400 460
Max. speed lubricated rpm 1000 * 750 * 560 450 375 327
Max. speed non-lubricated rpm 800 * 600 450 360 300 260
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Construction Capacity control

Without any means of control, a reciprocating compressor will
simply continue compressing gas to increasing pressures so long as
the gas supply and the power is available.

Unlike centrifugal units, the reciprocating unit cannot self-regulate
its capacity against a given discharge pressure.

If there was an unlimited supply of gas and an infinite capacity
downstream to discharge into there would not be a problem.

In the real world, this is not the case.
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Construction Capacity control

Recycle or Bypass

Suction throttling

Suction Valve unloading
Probably the most common
No energy wasted, other than passageway losses
Three types of suction valve unloading
Finger type
Plug type
Port or Passage type
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Construction Capacity control

Clearance pockets
Essentially an empty volume, typically in the outer head of the
cylinder, with a valved passage to the cylinder bore.

Variable speed-
A variable throughput can be achieved by varying the speed
since the p-d device does not rely upon sophisticated gas
dynamics for its compression.
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Construction other considerations

Lubrication

Cooling

Vent and buffer systems; fugitive emmision control

instrumentation
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Construction Developments

Cooper Compression have developed machines with a cylindrical
frame structure with the following benefits:

Eliminates the tie bar concept found in traditional designs.
Cylinder bolts accessible from the outside of the barrel
frame.
The stiffer cylindrical frame eliminates the need for
separate crosshead support
Savings in cost and space
Valve in Piston
VIP cylinder can be mounted to conventional frame
Dynamic discharge valves on piston rod move to compress
gas
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
The other major type of p-d compressor is the Screw
Compressor

A rotary screw compressor is a
type of gas compressor which
uses a rotary type positive
displacement mechanism.
Typically built to API619
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Rotary Screw Compressors

The male rotor is driven through a
coupling by the prime mover and
typically has 4 helical projections,
while the female rotor has 6
corresponding grooves; it therefore
turns at 2/3 the speed of the prime
mover. Other variations are 3/4, 5/7
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Performance Calculations

General considerations for a field engineer:

Determine the approximate horsepower required to compress a
certain volume of gas from some intake conditions to given
discharge pressure, and

Estimate the capacity of an existing compressor under specified
suction and discharge conditions


Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Rating of the Compressor

There must be design limits for each and every component and
these must not be exceeded in operation. They are, therefore, given
design ratings above which they may not be used. These include

maximum allowable discharge
pressure minimum clearance
number of valves and the valve size
rod loads on the running gear components
frame loads on stationary components.
total power of the whole compressor will be limited by the frame.

Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Sizing of the Compressor

Once the suction and discharge pressure, the suction temperature,
the gas composition and the required flow rate are determined a
compressor can be selected for the duty. Other factors that will
come into consideration include the relative importance of
efficiency, reliability and cost.

Horizontally opposed design is the most commonly used to minimise
unbalanced forces and moments and maximise operating life.
Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD compressor
Sizing of the Compressor

The power requirement will determine the speed and stroke;
low powers require a light, low stroke, high speed compressor while
high powers require a heavier, long stroke, low speed compressor.
Selection will be further influenced by the type of driver and the
speed range available.

In non-lubricated applications lower rotational and piston speeds are
used to improve piston and packing ring life
Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Sizing of the Compressor

Next, the number of stages must be determined.

Considerations are made on:

the maximum allowable discharge pressure,

pressure ratio,

efficiency, and

power saving.
Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Sizing of the Compressor - Stages

Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Sizing of the Compressor - Stages

It may be shown that for a two stage compression process, assuming
the gas is cooled to the original inlet temperature, that for minimum
work

P
inter
= (P
low
. P
high
)
1/2

It can also be shown that when this is the case the work done in each
stage is equal.


Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-PD Compressor
Sizing of the Compressor

Having determined the number of stages, the cylinders for each
stage can be determined, usually from available designs. The
following will need to be checked

pressure rating is adequate to be safe at the design and any
possible out of the ordinary conditions, and is above the relief
valve setting,

frame load, rod load and degrees of reversal must be within the
rating for the frame components,

allowing for all losses, the capacity calculated with the minimum
cylinder clearance must meet the requirements,

the power requirement of the chosen cylinder must not exceed
the power rating per throw of the frame components.

Compressor Design
Cylinder Clearance has a predominant control over Volumetric
Efficiency VE decreasing as clearance increases. Clearance is a
greater concern with higher compression ratios and with gases
with low specific heat ratios.

Similarly, the valve area of a cylinder has a dominant effect upon
Compression Efficiency. To obtain low clearance and high VE the
size and number of valves may be limited but this tends to
decrease the compression efficiency and raise the required power.
A compromise must be found.

Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
The enthalpy change in a compression process is the best way to
evaluate compressor work

It is common in evaluating reciprocating compressors to use
performance charts

Similar equations used in centrifugal compressor evaluation may
also be used

Thermodynamic compression assessment involve the following
processes:
Isothermal reversible path, P
1
v
1
=P
2
v
2
Isentropic reversible path, Pv
k
=constant
Polytropic reversible path, Pv
n
=constant


Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Compressor Design
Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
P
v
n=1
n=k=Cp/Cv (isentropic)
nk=polytropic
P
2
P
1
}
=
2
1
. W
P
P
dp v
The isentropic path is assumed for practicality

k = Cp/Cv or MCp/MCv (Btu/Ibmol
o
F)/(Btu/Ibmol
o
F)
or MCp/(MCp-1.986) since MCp-MCv=R=1.986 Btu/(Ibmol
o
F)

Variation of k with temperature requires the average values
between the suction and discharge being used

For a multi component gas, the mole weighted average value of
the molar heat capacity must be determined at the average
cylinder temperature

Alternative means of finding k is via the knowledge of the gases
MW




Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor




Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Approximate Heat Capacity Ratio (k) for HC gases
M
o
l
e
c
u
l
a
r

W
e
i
g
h
t

Heat Capacity Ratio (k)
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
1.04 1.08 1.12 1.16 1.20 1.24 1.28 1.32
50
o
F
100
o
F
150
o
F
200
o
F
250
o
F



Compressor Design
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Example gas
mixture
Determination of
mixture mol weight
Determination of
MCp, Molar heat
capacity
Determination of pseudo critical pressure,
pPc, and temperature, pTc
Component
name
Mol
fraction,
y
Individual
component
MW
y.MW Individual
Component
MCp@150
o
F
y.MCp@
150
o
F
Component
critical
pressure,
Pc, psia
y.Pc Component
critical
temperature,
Tc
o
R
y.Tc
Methane 0.9216 16.04 14.782 8.95 8.248 666 615.6 343 316.1
Ethane 0.0488 30.07 1.467 13.78 0.672 707 34.6 550 26.8
Propane 0.0185 44.1 0.816 19.52 0.361 616 11.4 666 12.3
i-butane 0.0039 58.12 0.227 25.77 0.101 528 2.1 734 2.9
n-butane 0.0055 58.12 0.320 25.81 0.142 551 3 765 4.2
i-pentane 0.0017 72.15 0.123 31.66 0.054 490 0.8 829 1.4
Total 1.00 MW = 17.735 MCp = 9.578 pPc = 667.5 pTc = 363.7
MCv = MCp-1.986 = 7.592 k=MCp/MCv = 9.578/7.592 = 1.26
Power requirement of the compressor determines the size of
the prime mover and the selection and design of compressor
components.

Actual power requirement is related to a theoretical cycle
through a compression efficiency which has been determined by
practical tests.

Compression efficiency is the ratio of the theoretical to actual
gas power and normally does not include mechanical friction
losses. These are added later by using mechanical efficiency or
adding in previously determined actual losses.

Compressibility Factor Z must also be considered for power
calculations, particularly for higher pressures.
Compression Power
Volume, pressure and temperature are universally based on inlet
with differentiation between the volumes of a perfect gas (V
p1
)
and a real gas (V
r1
)

V
r1 =
V
p1
Z
1

The Isentropic Efficiency of a compressor is defined as the
work required to compress the gas in an isentropic process
divided by the actual work used to compress the gas. The
isentropic efficiency of a compressor is that which is normally used
to rank compressors.


Compression Power
Power and Efficiency

Theoretical Power

Theoretical Power (Polytropic)

Indicated Power

Brake or Shaft Power

Isentropic Efficiency

Discharge Volumetric Efficiency

Compression Power
Discharge Volumetric Efficiency

Compression Power
Compressibility Correction Z
Z is required to compensate for the deviation from the perfect gas
laws and needs to be known for both intake and discharge
conditions.

Intake conditions are known and Z can be determined from specific
gas charts or by the reduced condition method using generalised
charts.

To obtain Z for discharge, discharge temperature must be known.

With p-d units using an adiabatic cycle the theoretical discharge
temperature is used. This can be read directly from a temperature
entropy diagram if available


Estimating compressor horsepower



Where,
MMcfd - compressor capacity referred to 14.4 psia and intake temperature through a
compression ratio of 9 in a 2 stage compressor
F - 1.0 for a single stage compression
1.08 for a two stage compression
1.10 for a three stage compression
The factor 20 instead of 22 is used to estimate gasses with higher specific gravity (0.8 to 1)
The factor 16 to 18 is used for compression ratios between 1.5 to 2.0

Power requirement can also be estimated using charts


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
(MMcfd)(F) stages) of ge)(no. (ratio/sta ) 22 ( Bhp =




Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Overall compression ratio based on absolute pressures, r1
B
h
p
/
M
M
c
f
d

(
1
4
.
4

p
s
i
a

a
n
d

s
u
c
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Detailed calculations for horsepower will involve restating the
following quantities after real factors have been included:

Capacity
Volumetric efficiency, q
vol

Equivalent capacity, MMcfd
Discharge temperature, T
d

Rod loading
Horsepower
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Capacity

Gases encountered in industrial compression do not exactly
follow the ideal gas equation of state

The degree in which any gas varies from the ideal is expressed
by a compressibility factor, Z

Pv = nRTZ

for mixtures, the reducing temperature and pressure terms,
pT
R
and pP
R
are used

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Capacity

For the purpose of performance calculations the compressor
capacity is expressed as the actual volumetric flow rate at the
inlet at each compression stage (ICFM)

from SCFM:


from weight flow:


from molar flow:

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
L 1
1 1
Z P
) Z T
)(
520
14.7
SCFM( Q =
L 1
1 1
Z P
) Z T
)(
MW
10.73
SCFM( Q w =
L 1
1 1
Z P
) Z T
)(
520
14.7
( 5 . 79 3 Q nm =
Capacity

Specifically for reciprocating compressors, effective capacity is
estimated from the piston displacement and volumetric
efficiency

single acting piston:


single acting piston:

[compressing on the crank end]


double acting piston:

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
(4)(1728)
) )( )(D (stroke)(N
PD
2
t
=
(4)(1728)
) )( d )(D (stroke)(N
PD
2 2
t
=
(4)(1728)
) )( d )(2D (stroke)(N
PD
2 2
t
=
Capacity

The clearance volume factor, C at the end of the piston stroke,
contributes toward the volumetric efficiency



The effect of the gas contained in the cylinder on the pumping
capacity of a cylinder is expressed as,




suction and discharge valve losses


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) in nt, displaceme (piston
) in volume, (clearance
C
3
3
=
(

= 1 ) ( 100 VE
/ 1 k
r
Z
Z
C r
D
s
(

= 1 ) ( 96 VE
/ 1 k
r
Z
Z
C r
D
s
Capacity

From the PD, VE, Suction Pressure and compressibilty factors,
the equivalent capacity of a compressor is calculated.






Net capacity of a compressor in cfd @ 14.4 psia



simplified for Z
14.4
= 1

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
)
) Z )(
in
Ib
14.4(
)xZ
ft
MMft
)x( )x(10
in
Ib
xPs(
100
VE%
min/d)x ( 1440 x )
min
ft
( PD
( MMcfd
s
14. 4
2
3
3
6
2
3

=
)
Z
10 x Ps x VE x PD
( MMcfd
s
-6
=
Capacity

For instances where the flowrate is required to be calculated
based on other measurement standards, modifications to the
MMscfd equations are required,






for a T
L
and P
L
basis (L standard conditions used for calculations or contract)




Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
)
Z
Z
)x(
T
T
)x(
P
14.4
x( )
) Z )(
in
Ib
14.4(
)xZ
ft
MMft
)x( )x(10
in
Ib
xPs(
100
VE%
min/d)x ( 1440 x )
min
ft
( PD
( MMcfd
s
L
s
L
L
s
14. 4
2
3
3
6
2
3

=
Discharge Temperature

A common method used to estimate the gas discharge
temperature from a cylinder is by using,




Temperature unit in Rankine or Kelvin


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) (r T T
k
1 - k
s D =
Rod Loading

Impact of compressor maximum speed and load carrying
capacity

Load carrying capacity can be further assessed based on
horsepower and rod loading

The rod loading is established to limit static and inertial loads
on the crankshaft, conn-rods, frame, piston rod, bolting and
projected bearing surfaces

A design with a non reversal rod loading results in bearing
wear and tear


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Rod Loading calculations

Load in compression and tension


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
A
r
A
p
P
d P
s
Direction of travel

A
r
A
p
P
d P
s
Direction of travel

Load = P
d
(A
p
) P
s
(A
p
-A
r
)
= (P
d
P
s
)A
p
+ P
s
A
r

Load = P
d
(A
p
-A
r
)- P
s
A
p

= (P
d
P
s
)A
p
- P
d
A
r

Horsepower

Charts are available to aid the detailed evaluation of a
reciprocating compressor required power input

Usually a nett value (inclusive of mechanical efficiency)

Volumes to be handled has to be corrected to the actual
temperature at the inlet of each compression stage

For intercoolers, the inter-stage pressure losses has to be
taken into account (estimated using intermediate pressure ratio
calculations, - 3-5% for subsequent stages)


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor




Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Bhp Per Million Curve
Mechanical efficiency 95%
Gas Velocity through valve 3000 fpm
Compression ratio, k
B
h
p
/
M
M
c
f
d

(
1
4
.
4

p
s
i
a

a
n
d

s
u
c
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e





Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
B
h
p
/
M
M
c
f
d

(
1
4
.
4

p
s
i
a

a
n
d

s
u
c
t
i
o
n

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

Compression ratio, k
Bhp Per Million Curve
Mechanical efficiency 95%
Gas Velocity through valve 3000 fpm
Horsepower

Corrected horsepower based on TL and PL is then applied to
the values obtained from the charts




Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Mcfd) )x(Zavg)(M
T
T
)x(
14.4
P
)(
MMcfd
Bhp
( Bhp
L
s L
=
Horsepower correction factors

Low intake pressure




Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) Mcfd)(F )x(Zavg)(M
T
T
)x(
14.4
P
)(
MMcfd
Bhp
( Bhp LIP
L
s L
=
Horsepower correction factors

Gas Specific Gravity




Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) Mcfd)(F )x(Zavg)(M
T
T
)x(
14.4
P
)(
MMcfd
Bhp
( Bhp SG
L
s L
=
Horsepower correction factors

High Speed Operations




Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Gas Specific Gravity Percent horsepower
increase for high speed
units
0.5-0.8 4
0.9 5
1.0 6
1.1 8
1.5 10
Example
Compress 2 MMScfd of gas measured at 14.65 psia and 60
o
F. Intake pressure is
100psia, and 100
o
F. Discharge pressure is 900 psia. The gas has a specific gravity
of 0.8 (23MW). Assume an intercooling temperature of 120
o
F. The compressibility
factors for the gas at suction, Z
s
, discharge, Z
d
and average, Z
avg
are given as
follows:
1stage => 0.98, 0.97, 0.975; 2
nd
stage=> 0.94 , 0.92, 0.93;
Find the required horsepower. Estimate how many cylinders and their diameters
1. Compression ratio





for a 2 stage compression, the compression ratio per stage =3

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
)
psia 100
psia 900
( r =
9 r =
Example (cont)
2. Discharge pressures

1
st
stage = 100 x 3 = 300 psia

Less intermediate pressure losses (5 psi) = 300-5 = 295 psi

Re-calculate the second stage compression ratio = 900/295 = 3.05


Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Example (cont)
3. k value
For MW = 23,
SG = 0.8 @ 150
o
F

k= 1.21
Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
1.21
Example (cont)
4. Discharge temperature (1
st
stage)









Average cylinder temperature can be taken as 160
o
F

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) (r T T
k
1 - k
s D =
F R
o o
217 23 . 677 TD = =
) (3 ) R ( 67 . 559 T
1.21
1 - 1.21
o
D =
Example (cont)
4. Discharge temperature (2
nd
stage)









Average cylinder temperature can be taken as 182
o
F

Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) (r T T
k
1 - k
s D =
F R
o o
244 4 . 703 TD = =
) (3.05 ) R 67 . 579 ( T
1.21
1 - 1.21
o
D =
Example (cont)
5. Horsepower (1
st
stage), at r = 3, k=1.21

Bhp/MMscfd = 63.5

Horsepower (2
nd
stage), at r = 3.05, k =1.21

Bhp/MMscfd = 64.5










Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor




Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
63.5 Bhp/MMscfd
64.5 Bhp/MMscfd
2
nd
stage
1
st
stage
Example (cont)
6. Expression of horsepower on the basis of T
L
and P
L
,

1
st
stage
Bhp/MMscfd = 63.5 (14.65/14.4)(560/520)0.975
Bhp = 2 MMscfd x 67.8 = 135.6

2
nd
stage
Bhp/MMscfd = 64.5 (14.65/14.4)(580/520)0.93
Bhp = 2MMscfd x 68.1 = 136.3

Total horsepower = 135.6 + 136.2
= 271.8 bhp

compare to using the earlier simplified equation (285 Bhp)








Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
Example (cont)
6. Cylinder specifications (diameter)

Qa = VE x Displaced volumetric flowrate








Displaced Volumetric flowrate = 2/ 0.93 = 2.15MMscfd or 0.00149MMscfm
Displaced volume = A cycle x stroke x N/2 (single acting)
= t/4 x D
p
2
x SN/1728
for a stroke of 15, N=450rpm, Dp>2
Dp = 4.125 ft = 49.5 or 4 cylinders of 12.5 each








Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
) in nt, displaceme (piston
) in volume, (clearance
C
3
3
=
(

= 1 ) ( 96 VE
/ 1 k
r
Z
Z
C r
D
s
(

= 1 ) 3 (
97 . 0
98 . 0
14 . ) 3 ( 96 VE
21 . 1 / 1
% 93 VE =
(4)(1728)
) )( )(D (stroke)(N
PD
2
t
=
Example (cont)
6. Cylinder specifications (rod loading)

API 618 => Rod design unit load < 8000 psi
















Compressor Design and Construction
Compressor Performance-Pd Compressor
The characteristics of a centrifugal compressor are determined by
the impeller and diffuser geometry. In simplistic terms, kinetic
energy is imparted to the gas via the impeller by centrifugal
forces. The diffuser then reduces the velocity and converts the
kinetic energy to pressure energy.

Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors
A single-wheel unit used in 100 150,000 ICFM applications

Multi-wheel considered fro inlet volumes between 500
200,000 ICFM

Speeds start from 3000 rpm
(limited by impeller stress)

Prime movers include electric
motors, steam/gas turbines

Service, operational requirements and economic factors are
considered in selecting the type of compressors

Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal compressors approximates the constant head-
variable volume machine

Axial compressors are a low head, high flow machines

A compressor is part of a system in which its performance is
dictated by the system resistance



Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Calculations
The three items usually requiring calculation for a centrifugal
compressor are
Shaft horsepower
Operating speed
Discharge temperature

Power and speed are dependant upon the required head for
compression, which in turn varies directly with the absolute suction
temperature, and inversely with the molecular weight of the gas to
be compressed.





Centrifugal Compressors
80
Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressor Components

81
Centrifugal Compressors
Inlet Volute and First Stage Impeller

82
Centrifugal Compressors
Diffuser, diaphragm, 2
nd
stage,
labyrinths
83
Centrifugal Compressors
Double Flow Compressor
84
Centrifugal Compressors
Sidestream Compressor
85
Centrifugal Compressors
Abradable Labyrinth Seal
Tight clearance and turbulence creates
resistance to leakage flows.
86
Centrifugal Compressors
Fabricated Compressor Casing
87
Centrifugal Compressors
Fabricated Compressor Casing
88
Centrifugal Compressors
Fabricated Compressor Casing
Gas engines

Gas turbines

Electric motors

Diesel Engines






Prime Movers
Centrifugal Compressors
Performance depicted by a family of curves displaying operating
range of flows, efficiency, power and speed

Performance envelop / map

Shape of performance curve depend on the physical design of
the impeller

The performance of a compressor at speeds other than design
can be determined through the Affinity Laws/Fan Laws

The fan laws are however limited to single and multi-stage
compression at low compression ratios and low March numbers





Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
There are three import elements to a compressor curve that need to be
considered;

Slope of the curve
Choke (or Stonewall)
Surge
Centrifugal Compressors

Slope
The velocity vectors at the impeller discharge determine the
slope of the Q-H curve

Centrifugal Compressors
Degree of backward
lean
V
rel
V

V
t
Slope
The head increase with decreasing flow is what causes the basic
slope of the centrifugal compressor performance curve.
Centrifugal Compressors
Slope
The backward leaning blade is normally used. It has the highest
stage efficiency but sacrifices head. Blade angle & tip width are
considered to achieve desired head and efficiency.
Centrifugal Compressors
Choke or Stonewall

Occurs when increasing flow results in a rapid decrease in head. This
occurs because the gas is approaching sonic conditions, that is the
Mach Number is approaching 1.0.

Very high flow rates have a negative effect upon efficiency and can
be very damaging; controlled by the impellor inlet geometry.
Centrifugal Compressors
Surge

Surge flow has been defined as peak head. Below the surge point
head decreases with a corresponding decrease in flow. Surge is
particularly damaging to a machine and must be avoided.
During surge, flow reversal takes
place resulting in reversed
stressing of nearly all compressor
components.
Centrifugal Compressors
Surge

Separation in one of the components of a stage will result in a
condition of stall for that stage. Frequently this flow separation will
start in one of more blades and continuously shift around the
impeller at a slow rotational rate just before full surge occurs. At
higher speeds the compressor may go directly from a stable condition
to one of flow separation on all blades and full flow reversal. Note
that Rotating Stall can also originate in the diffuser.

The flow separation with the higher frictional losses result in a
positively sloped curve.

Since the system resistance curve is also positively sloped the system
becomes unstable.

Centrifugal Compressors
Centrifugal Compressors
10 HP/P1
15000 rpm
14000 rpm
1300 rpm
15700 rpm
8 HP/P1
8 HP/P1
4HP/P1
Flow MMSCFD/P1 ( 60
o
F, 14.7 Psia )
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

R
a
t
i
o

P
2
/
P
1

Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Parameters affecting rate:

Q Vs. q
p
, Bhp and P
2
/P
1
Centrifugal Compressors
90
100
110
90
100
110
P2/P1
P1 constant
P2 constant
P2/P1
Volume Flow Rate
q
p
90
100
Volume Flow Rate
60
70
80
P2const
BHp
Volume Flow Rate
P1onst
100
110
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Performance estimation through available performance charts
(all centrifugal compressor performance are based on flows that
are converted into inlet or actual cubic feet per minute ICFM
or ACFM, due to the sensitivity of the impeller wheel to inlet
volume, compression ratio and specific speeds)






Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors






Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Gas Compression HP Calculations

Use of basic thermodynamics relations ie. Ideal Gas Law, 1
st

Law

Shaft Work

Actual conditions may approach ideal conditions

Compression conditions: Isothermal, Isentropic and Polytropic



Compressors
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
Calculating performance for more accurate information on
compressor head, gas horsepower and discharge temperature

All values for pressure and temperature in these calculations are
given in absolute values and the volume from rates are in ACFM
or ICFM


The overall isentropic head across the compressor (non-staging)

or

where, Z= Z
avg
and k is evaluated at the average suction and discharge
temperatures


Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
)
144
1
(
P
) Z (T
)
MW
1545
( Q
1
1 1
w =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

1
P
P
k
1 - k
MW
ZRT
H
/ ) 1 (
1
2
k k
is
k
k
R Zavg T
k
k
is
) 1 (
) 1 )( )( )( 3 . 53 (
H
1
1

Centrifugal Compressors
The horsepower can now be calculated






Where w is the mass flowrate (Ib/min), q
is
is the isentropic efficiency

Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
is
is wH
Ghp r
q
=
) )( )( 09 . 53 ( Q m w = =
-
Centrifugal Compressors
The approximate theoretical discharge temperature is calculated
from:




The actual discharge temperature can be calculated using,
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
(
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
= A

1
P
P
T T
) / 1 (
1
2
1 ideal
k k
ideal 1 2 T T T A + =
is
k k
q
(
(
(
(
(
(

|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

= A
1
) / 1 (
P
P
T T
1
2
1 actual
actual 1 2 T T T A + =
Centrifugal Compressors
Polytropic performance consideration



The equations for head and gas horsepower based upon
polytropic compression

or



The polytropic and isentropic heads are related through
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
p q
(
(
(
(

=
1 - k
k
1 n
n
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
) / 1 (
P
P
1)/n MW(n
RT Z
H
1
2 1 avg
p
n n
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
p
p wH
Ghp r
q
=
is
is p
p
H
H
q
q
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
) / 1 (
P
P
1)/n MW(n
T 1545Z
H
1
2 1 avg
p
n n
Centrifugal Compressors
Bhp is calculated with the incorporation of mechanical losses
(friction, bearing losses, seals and gearing losses)

Bhp = Ghp + Mechanical losses

or

Bhp = Ghp/q
m

When a P-h diagram is available for the gas to be compressed,
it should be used to obtain more accurate results
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Centrifugal Compressors
When a P-h diagram is available for the gas to be compressed,
it should be used to obtain more accurate results
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
P
h
P
2
P
1
2
s
2
a
Ah
a
Ah
s
1 2is h h h = A is
1 2 h
h
h
is
is
+
A
=
q
ft.Ib/BTU) 778 ( h H
(ft) head isentropic to Conversion
2is A = is
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
p
p wH
Ghp r
q
=
) 33000 (
) ( Horsepowe Gas
is
is wH
Ghp r
q
=
Capacity Controls

Suction Throttling
Speed Variation
Recycling



Centrifugal Compressors
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
Standard volume flow is commonly used in compressor
calculations due to its independence actual gas pressures and
temperatures





gas of volume specific and factor conversion - 53.09
MMSCFD flow, volume standard - Q
gas of gravity specific - g
where,
(Ibm/min) Q m ) ( 09 . 53 =
-
Compressors
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
To use ACFM ( function of mass flowrate and the specific
volume at suction conditions),





R re, temperatu standard - 520
psia pressure, standard - 14.7
R suction, at re temperatu absolute - T1
psia suction, at pressure absolute - P1
factor ility compressib - Z1
/Ibm ft air, of volume specific - 13.08
/Ibm ft volume, specific std - V1
/Ibm ft volume, specific standard -
where,
)
520
1
)(
1
7 . 14
( and
08 . 13
3
3
3
1 1
Vs
T
P
Z V V Vs s = =

Compressors
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
ACFM:




The ACFM is important when estimating compressor
performance
1 V m ACFM
-
=
Compressors
Compressor Performance-Centrifugal Compressor
A centrifugal compressor is used in a gas plant to recompress residue
gas. The plant is producing 15 MMSCFD of residue gas and is selling the
gas to a pipeline company always operating at 1000psig. The plant sends
the gas to the compressor at 500psig. Given the following data, determine
the horsepower used.

Elevation: sea level
Ambient Temperature: 65 F
Gas Specific Gravity: 0.6
Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.25
Average Compressibility Factor: 0.9897
Discharge Gas Temperature: 200 F
Suction Gas Temperature: 95 F
Efficiency: 98%

Example
Compressor Performance
a. Isentropic efficiency
R = P
discharge
/ P
suction
= 1000 + 14.7 / 500 + 14.7
= 1.97

T
2
= 200 F + 460 = 660 R
T
1
= 95 F + 460 = 550 R

q
isen
= T
1
[ (R
(k-1/k)
1) / (T2-T1) ]
= 0.77

Example
Compressor Performance
b. Head Required:




H = 35 433 ft-Ibf / Ibm

c. Mass Flow:



M = 477.81 Ibm/min


Example
(

=

1 ) (
1
1
k
k
1
2
avg
1
P
P
Z
53.3T
k
k
H

(Ibm/min) Q m ) ( 09 . 53 =
-
Compressor Performance
d. HP Required:




HP = 680

Example
)
1
( )
1
(
mech
x
isen
x
33000
n) ate(Ibm/mi MassFlowr x Head(adia)
P H
q q
=
Compressor Performance