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Global Warming

Global

warming is the increase of the Earths surface median temperature over time. Since late in the 19th century the average global surface temperature has gone up .5F and during the 20th century, surface temperatures grew by about 1F.

Predictions for the next 100 years are for a 2.7-8 degree F increase, depending on how much fossil fuels are burned and forest systems are removed.

Global Warming
An increase in greenhouse gasses is the

cause of global warming.


Some effects include: an increase in sea level, difficulties in agriculture, change in rainfall, and changes in the ecosystem which will cause animals and plants to have to adapt or perish.

Floods
A certain surface is affected by them for an indeterminated period of time.

They can be seasonal or sudden.

Floods
Floods are water covering previously dry area.

A flood is a very large amount of water that has

overflowed from a source such as a river, lake, and ocean. They can also have overflowed a broken pipe onto a previously dry area. The damages after a flood is harsh because everything or parts of things will be under water and the effects of a flood can kill many people.

Kinds Of Floods
Flooding can also be divided into different categories according to their location:

Coastal Floods
River Floods Urban Floods

Kinds Of Floods

1. Coastal Floods: Coastal Floods usually occur along coastal areas.

When there are hurricanes and tropical storms which


will produce heavy rains, or giant tidal waves created by volcanoes or earthquakes, ocean water may be driven onto the coastal areas and cause coastal floods.

Kinds Of Floods

2. River Floods This is the most common type of flooding.

When the actual amount of river flow is larger than


the amount that the channel can hold, river will overflow its banks and flood the areas alongside the river. And this may cause by reasons like snow melt or heavy spring rain.

Kinds Of Floods
3. Urban Floods In most of the urban area, roads are usually paved. With heavy rain, the large amount of rain water cannot be absorbed into the ground and leads to urban floods.

The Effect on Floods


Higher surface temperatures and changes in precipitation cause floods in some places, and droughts in others. floods.
A rise in sea level and severe rain are two causes of floods.

The Effect on Floods


Long term changes in the hydrological cycle (the flow of water throughout Earth) due to higher temperatures (more evaporation; melting of ice, more intense rain fall) contribute to more floods.
More water vapor in the atmosphere, because the atmosphere is heating up, can cause floods to happen more regularly.

Floods Continued
Sea level rising will also contribute to more floods. The sea level is predicted to go up from four inches to three feet. Sea level rises when the water warms and increases in amount, or when glaciers and ice melt..

Floods Continued
As the glaciers and ice turn into water the sea level increases and floods could start to last for a longer

amount of time and happen more

Floods Continued
Sea level rising will also contribute to more floods. The sea level is predicted to go up from four inches to three feet. Sea level rises when the water warms and increases in amount, or when glaciers and ice melt. As the glaciers and ice turn into water the sea level increases and floods could start to last for a longer amount of time and happen more frequently.

Examples and Predictions of Flooding


There are predictions that as a result of

climate change there will be a large increase in famine by 2050 of 30 million people going

hungry because of less crops caused by flooding.


One country that suffers from flooding

because of climate change is Bangladesh. They experienced major flooding in 1998 in which two thirds of the country was underwater.

Examples and Predictions of Flooding


There are predictions for this to become worse with more constant flooding and more of the country underwater by 2100 if it continues the

same way.
Many including coastal cities would San be affected, New

Manhattan,

Francisco,

Orleans, and Miami, and cities around the world including highly populated ones like Shanghai.

BENEFITS

There are many disruptive effects of flooding on human


settlements and economic activities. However, floods (in particular the more frequent/smaller

floods) can bring many benefits, such as recharging ground


water, making soil more fertile and providing nutrients in which it is deficient. Flood waters provide much needed water resources in particular in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation

events can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year.

BENEFITS Freshwater floods in particular play an important role in

maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key


factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity

Effect of Flood on Urban & Rural Areas


Urban Areas
Massive amounts of erosion can

Rural Areas
be Flooding of farmland usually results in crop loss.

accomplished by flood waters.

Such erosion can undermine bridge structures, Livestock, pets, and other animals are

levees, and buildings causing their collapse.

often carried away and drown.


systems may be

Water entering human built structures cause Transportation water damage. Even with minor flooding of homes, furniture clean-up supplies.

disrupted, resulting in shortages of food and

is ruined, floors and walls are damaged, and Food grains stored at home or in goanything that comes in contact with the water is downs get wet and start rotting. likely to be damaged or lost. In under developed countries food Flooding of automobiles usually results in shortages often lead to starvation

damage that cannot easily be repaired.

Effect of Flood on Urban & Rural Areas


Urban Areas
Gas and electrical service may be disrupted.

Rural Areas
The affected communities living in

Water supply pipes/ system get damaged and


wells get inundated creating shortage of drinking water.

temporary shelters/ resettlements have


limited or no access to safe drinking water, food etc. In addition, prevailing unhygienic sanitary

conditions make it conducive for spread of


food and waterborne diseases.

Natural Causes
Excesive rains.

Overflowing of rivers, lagoons, lakes,etc.

Human causes
Bad agricultural practice
Bad infraestructure Deforestation Urban increase

Most important consequences


Population mortality
Economic losses Population evacuation Infraestructure destruction

Flood Management History in India


Before independence: Damodar experience 1948: The DVC Act 1954: National Flood Policy 1963: Farakka construction starts 1980: Report of National Floods Commission 1979-80: Flood forecasting starts 1999: Report of the National Commission on Integrated Water Resources Development 2002: ILR proposals to solve flood problem 2004: PMs Task Force on Floods 2004: Proposal for NE River Valley Authority

The Govt responses


Embankments Dams Dredging Spurs, revetments (Flood forecasts, warning) ILR Disaster Management Relief, (insurance) Committees

How flood affected area has been going up


State Area prone to floods (m ha) as assessed by NCF 10th Plan working (1980) Group-2002 4.26 6.88 7.34 7.34 2.65 3.77 0.12 3.15 3.82

Bihar UP W Bengal Arunachal Pradesh Assam

Average annual damage due to floods in Bihar


(Source: NCF, 1980)

Period

Total Area affected, Lakh Ha 8.81 10.82 21.30

Crop Area affected, Lakh ha 4.43 5.85 8.85

Total damage at constant prices, Rs Lakh 861.92 1184.08 4588.57

1950-65 1966-70 1971-78

Average annual damage due to Floods in Uttar Pradesh


(Source: NCF, 1980)

Period

Total Area affected, Lakh Ha

Crop Area Total damage at affected, Lakh ha constant prices, Rs Lakh 7.84 10.42 1229.48 1730.16

1950-65 16.80 1966-70 20.12

1971-78 30.00

16.64

4550.81

Brahmaputra floods in India


Period Average Annual Area flooded ( m ha) Total Cropped Flooded crop area as % of total inundated area 8.85 21.33 Average Annual no of people affected, m Average annual damage Rs M

1953-59 1960-69

1.013 0.75

0.1 0.16

0.86 1.52

58.6 75.7

1970-79
1980-88 1999-2005

0.87
1.43 1.07

0.18
0.40 0.38

20.69
28.05 35.65

2.00
4.55 4.586

151.8
1445.2 7171.7