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APPLICATION OF GPS IN POWER SYSTEM

SUBMITTED BY: RAVINDER KUMAR Roll No: 3131618

CONTENTS

What is GPS? GPS at work How GPS works? Why GPS? Introduction to SYNCHROPHASORS PMU or SYNCHROPHASORS Block diagram of PMU Specification of PMU PMU installed in INDIA

Application of PMU Fault Locator Detector using GPS Block diagram of FLAR Advantages of FLAR
Application of GPS for Sag Measurement of Overhead Power Transmission Line Observations Advantage of DGPS system Conclusion Reference

WHAT IS GPS?

GPS or Global Positioning Systems is a highly sophisticated navigation system developed by the United States Department of Defense. This system utilizes satellite technology with receivers and high accuracy clocks to determine the position of an object.

4 birds (as we say) for 3-D fix

GPS consists of

A Constellation of satellites, which orbit the earth twice a day, transmitting precisetime and position (latitude,longitude,altitude) information A complete system consists of 24 satellites .

GPS AT WORK
1.Navigation - Where do I want to go 2.Location- Where am I 3. Tracking- Monitoring something as it moves 4. Mapping- Where is everything else 5. Timing - When will it happen

How GPS works?


GPS transmits signals every second, which when decoded allow the date and time of day be determined anywhere in the world to 1pps accuracy . GPS receiver extracts two signal: 1. 1 pps strobe signal 2. Serial message which contains date and time of previous 1pps strobe signal.

WHY GPS?

BECAUSE India suffered a major grid disturbance in northern region at midnight at 02:33hrs on 30th July 2012 and further severe disturbance occurred at 13hrs on31st July resulting collapse of 48000MW of power in North, North-East Regions EXCEPT Western& South Regions. This grid disturbance affected normal life of 60crore population of the country for more than 8hrs.

This has necessitated our grid system for modernization and development to the level of a smart grid by deploying synchrophasor technology which is world wide accepted as a solution towards future blackouts and grid failures.

Introduction to SYNCHROPHASOR

Powerful tool for diagnose ,prevention ,and cure for grid system. High speed real time synchronised measurement devices used for finding health of electrical grid. ULTRA FAST measurement system of grid parameter. It is 100 times faster than present SCADA system. With synchrophasor datas utilities can use existing power more efficiently and push more power through existing grid.

PHASOR MEASUREMENT UNIT OR SYNCHROPHASORS


INPUT

Secondary sides of the 3 P.T. or C.T.

PMU

OUTPUT

Corresponding Voltage or Current phasors

Block diagram of PMU

The time marker information from GPS is assigned to the absolute phase angle and frequency as their time tag. Finally, the time-marked measured results are transmitted to remote site through Ethernet or other communication channel

central data collection

Specifications of PMU

SOURCE : SYNCHROPHASORS INITIATIVE IN INDIA-POSOCO

PMU INSTALLED IN INDIA


A. Northern Region Phase-I i. 400 kV Vindhyachal-Singrauli-I ii. 400 kV Kanpur-Ballabgarh-I iii. 400 kV Moga-Bhiwadi-I iv. 400 kV Dadri_NTPC Dadri_HVDC interconnector-I B. Northern Region Phase-II i. 400 kV Gwalior Agra-I and 400 kV AgraGwalior-II ii. 400 kV Agra-Bassi-I and 400 kV AgraBassi-II iii. 400 kV Hisar-Bawana iv. 400 kV Kishenpur-Moga-I and 400 kV Kishenpur-Moga-II

C. Western Region i. 400 kV Raipur-Bhadrawati-I

D. Southern Region i. 400 kV Hyderabad-Ramagundam ii. 400 kV Bengaluru-Kolar iii. 400 kV Salem-Hosur

Applications of PMU
PMU APPLICATION

REAL TIME

OFFLINE

ENHANCING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

DETECTON AND ANALYSIS OF OSCILLATION IN POWER SYSTEM

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF FAULT/GRID INCIDENTS

PHASORS OF VOLTAGE AND CURRENT,MAGNITUDE OF FREQUENCY

DETECTION OF TIME,AMPLITUDE,DUR ATION , FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION

LOCATION OF FAULT

TYPE,NATURE,TIME OF FAULT,FAULT CLEARANCE TIME

FAULT LOCATION DETECTOR USING GPS

Block diagram of FLAR


It is known as the Fault Locator Acquisition Reporter or(FLAR) system.

Basic principle of FLAR

A Fault Locator remote couples to each end of this line via the high frequency tap from a capacitor coupling device called a Capacitive Potential Transformer (CPT).
The CPT acts as a high pass filter which rejects Power Frequency signal but passes the higher frequency components of fast rise-time fault transients.

Traveling wave fault locators make use of the transient signals generated by the fault.

Unlike other fault location systems,the traveling wave fault locator is unaffected by load conditions. Precisely gps synchronized clocks are the key element in the implementation of this fault location technique. The required level of clock accuracy has only recently been available at reasonable cost with the introduction of the Global Positioning System.

A Fault Locator remote is actually a fancy electronic stopwatch , synchronized to the common timing standard of UTC from GPS, either directly or via a wideband microwave channel from the Control Center. When a fault occurs at distance X from an end of the line, the resulting arc produces traveling waves. These transients, with 2 to 5 microsecond leading edge rise-times, emanate towards the ends of the line at near the speed of light (c).

The Fault Locator remotes time tag the transient arrival times to an accuracy of one microsecond. By knowing the line length L and the time-of-arrival difference (tb - ta), one can calculate the distance X, from substation A by using the fault location equation: X= L- c (tb - ta) 2
L = Electrical Line length c= Vel. of Prop. = 0.2997 km/usec ta = End A arrival time tb = End B arrival time

ADVANTAGES

Protection of transmissioin lines are extremly acurate. Economical Fast response Reliable and minimized the time required to find and repair power line outages.

Errors in FLAR techniques

ERROR TYPE FAULT DETECTION ERROR TIME TAGGING RESOLUTION GPS TIMING ERROR

ERROR TIME

LOCATION ERROR

0.5 to 5 usec
0 to 0.1 u sec
<

150 - 1500 m
0 - 30 m < loo m

0.3 u sec

Application of GPS for Sag Measurement of Overhead Power Transmission Line

Representation of experimental system

We are placing a DGPS(a newer version of GPS), integrated with the communication module in a specially designed enclosure on the transmission line. ROVER: made up ofstainless-steel supports to a 6-in. diameter HVAC aluminum pipe on the outside and a high temperature polymer tube on the inside. polymer tube on the inside geodetic GPS antenna Leica GMX 902 receiver Wireless modem NMEA/GPS data logging software The rover GPS unit is used to evaluate the conductor to ground clearance continuously, and this information is transferred in real time to a distant sag monitoring center.

The GPS relevant information was transferred in standard NMEA-0183 sentences from the GPS receiver to the laptop over the wireless link established by the radio modem. After obtaining the DGPS data, the altitude in formation from GPS messages was extracted so that the conductor-toground clearance could be evaluated in real time.

OBSERVATIONS
No-Load Test

On load test

Advantage of DGPS system

The DGPS system can be used to stretch the transmission-line capacity (short term) beyond the normal rating so that excess thermal capacity of the line could be exploited.

CONCLUSION
o

A key element in both these applications is a source of reliable precise time. GPS is the only system available with the accuracy required for these systems. It has a cost now comparable with any other time dissemination system. It has set a new standard of performance and has opened up a whole new arena for the development of power system controls.

REFERENCE
1. Application of GPS for Sag Measurement of OverheadPower Transmission Line Sangeeta Kamboj and Ratna Dahiya . 2. M. Kezunovic, J. Mrkic, B. Perunicic, An Accurate Fault Location Algorithm Using Synchronized Sampling, Electric Power Systems Research Joumal, Volume 29, Number 3, May 1994. 3. R.E. Wilson, Methods and Uses of Precise Time in Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Deliuery, Volume 7, Number 1, January 1992. 4. IEEE Working Group Report, Power System Relaying Committee, Synchronized Sampling and Phasor Measurements for Relaying and Control, IEEE Transactions on Power Delicery, January 1994. 5. Global Positioning System, Volumes I, 11, and 111, papers pub lished in Nauigation, reprinted by the Institute of Navigation, Washington, D.C., 1980

6. Arun Phadke,Synchronized Phasors articleIEEE Computer Applications in Power,April 1993. 7. V.K.Agarwal and P.K.Agarwal,[Power Grid,India Limited]commissioning of PMUs Pilot project in north region of India, Nation Power System Conference 2010,India. 8. IEEE Standard C37.118-2005,IEEE Standard for Power Systems.