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SCM and Risk Management

G Ramesh Gopalaswamy_Ramesh@Yahoo.Com

The next perspective

Technology People


Services Process

Engineering Activities Projects

In-stream Activities

Umbrella Activities

Session 8 and 9

Metrics & SQA

Configuration Management Risk Management

Session 8 and 9

Topics in SCM


Genesis and effects of Change Impacts of change The transition and the difference Definitions and Terminology The vendors viewpoint Processes and Activities in Software Configuration Management Need for tools Typical functions served by tools Integrating with vendors tools

Change Management Configuration Management

SCM Tools and Automation

SCM Issues in Global Teams

Session 8 and 9

Genesis and effect of change

Change in Technical Requirements Change in User Requirements Change in Business Requirements

Approved Change Requests

Project Plan, Other Documents

Code, Test Data etc

Product Documentation
Product Training Material

Session 8 and 9

Impacts of (Uncontrolled) Change

Re-work Slipped schedule Product Behavior Expectation Changes Incompatibility across components Question of who pays for it? Possible mistrust and padded schedules and costs
Session 8 and 9

Change Management Configuration Management

Componentization and Dependencies Co-existence of multiple vendors Distributed teams working simultaneously Co-existence of multiple versions Co-existence of multiple states (Alpha, Beta) Support for multiple platforms

SCM = Change Control + Version Control + Movement Control

Session 8 and 9

What is a Configuration?

A Configuration is a set of (related) items that is:

Identifiable Consistent Re-creatable Hardware and Software Items Manual and Computer Based Items (We will restrict ourselves to Software Configuration Management)

Configuration can be combinations of:

Session 8 and 9

What is an Item?

An elementary part of a configuration that must be:

Identified (Versioned) Tracked Controlled

Session 8 and 9

What is Configuration Management?

The art of coordinating software development and changes to the items to minimize confusion Consists of:

Institutionalized Procedures Tools


Session 8 and 9

Configuration Management Process:

4 1 Change Request

Communication to Requestor 8 3 Evaluation NO OK to change? YES

1 Change Request

Resource 2 7 Estimates Completed Change Development

Change Authorization

Workspace 6
Check-in 5 Check-out Baseline Register Change Control Register


Session 8 and 9

Change Review Dimensions

Necessity Appropriateness Impact


Session 8 and 9

SCM in Global Teams: Issues and Challenges


Need for a common SCM Repository and tool Compatibility among the systems across the globe Speed and dependence on bandwidth Consistency of procedures across locations Ignoring consistent updates to training, documentation Communication on top of the tools and process Operational issues of backup time, 24x7




Session 8 and 9

SCM In Global Teams: People Issues

Need for consistent policies

Sense of parity required to maintain the spirit of the process Automation cannot solve all the problems! Should not be viewed as a bureaucratic overhead

Need for increased communication

Strong management support for policies


Session 8 and 9

SCM In Global Teams: Technology Issues

Choice of tool architecture

Centralized Vs Distributed Vs Replicated Everyone needs to have a consistent configuration Intelligent sync up Data compatibility and meta-data compatibility

Dependence of communication link

Performance Criticality

Compatibility across various tools


Session 8 and 9

SCM In Global Teams: Process Issues

Consistent Processes across the teams Documentation standards Distributed SCCB and co-ordination


Session 8 and 9

Risk Management: Topics

What is Risk? What is Risk Management? Why is it important? Risk Management Cycle Risks and Mitigation for Global Teams Metrics in Risk Management


Session 8 and 9

What is Risk?

Events that are unforeseen and usually beyond the planners control Events, if not reacted to, can affect the expected/desired project outcome Events worth anticipating and having an alternative plan


Session 8 and 9

What is Risk Management?

The process of anticipating what all could go different from the plan and provide alternative plans so as to have minimum impact on the originally anticipated final outcome


Session 8 and 9

Why is Risk Management important?

Murphys Law! If anything can go wrong, it will! Proactive planning reduces in line pressure Early identification of risks enables the choice of the least risky option Is a common sense practice we do in real life anyway!


Session 8 and 9

Risk Management Cycle

Risk Monitoring
Risk Identification Risk Quantification

Risk Monitoring
Risk Mitigation

Risk Monitoring


Risk Monitoring
Session 8 and 9

Risk Identification

Identifying possible risk sources

Both positive and negative!

Unidentified risks are more dangerous than identified risks!


Session 8 and 9

Risk Identification Tools

History within the organization: Documents and Interviews Checklists Literature Simple Framework Based Identification Simulation Decision Trees
Session 8 and 9


Risk Identification Tools: Organizational History

Look at past projects track record (covered in Project Closure in Chapter 12) Look at the past track record of customers/other parties Talk to (and Listen to!) others with similar experience in the organization


Session 8 and 9

Risk Identification Tools: Checklists

Checklists as a representation of

Things to do Things to watch out for

Manifestation of previous history Should be kept current as we learn from projects


Session 8 and 9

Risk Identification Tools: Literature

Various Journals, Books etc (e.g., IEEE) Industry forums Informal Networking across the industry Formal Information Buying


Session 8 and 9

Risk Identification Tools: A simple framework

Framework provides a structure to channel the analysis (a case of Generalized Checklists) Identify risks in each of the categories

Technology Risks Market Risks People related risks Environmental Risks Political Risks


Session 8 and 9

Risk Identification Tools: Decision Trees


Session 8 and 9

Risk Quantification

Two dimensions to the importance of a risk

Probability of a risk happening Impact of the risk Provides a tangible unit of measurement Normalizes across various dimensions

Impact usually converted to $ amounts

Risk Exposure = Probability * Impact


Session 8 and 9

Fig 8.2. Decision Trees

<Economy Good; 0.3>

<Economy Neutral; 0.2>

<Economy Bad; 0.5>

<Case1; 0.3>

<Case2; 0.7>

<Case5; 0.9>

<Case6; 0.1>

<Case3; 0.8>
PR = $3M RAR = $0.18M PR = $5M RAR = $0.7M PR = $0.5M RAR = $0.2M

<Case4; 0.2>
PR = $1.5M RAR = $405.5K PR = $1M RAR = $0.1M PR = $2M RAR = $60K

36 PR = Projected Revenue; RAR = Risk Adjusted Revenue Session 8 and 9

Risk Mitigation

Mechanism to identify if a risk has actually happened

Indicators or Symptoms Keeping antennae open Preferably have multiple options open

Alternative Plans to tackle the risk if it happens

Mitigation in the context of common types of risks


Session 8 and 9

Mitigation against common Risks

People Flux

Redundancy Good HR Policies Aligning individuals aspirations to organizational goals Documented processes Training and skill upgradation


Session 8 and 9

Mitigation against common Risks (Contd)

Requirements Change

Good customer relations Prototyping and Early feedback Good Configuration Management and Change Control Proper Contract Review


Session 8 and 9

Mitigation against common Risks (Contd)

Unrealistic schedules and budgets

Expert opinion Comparison to historical data Drill down details (may not be easy) Software Reuse


Session 8 and 9

Risk Monitoring

Happens throughout the project Keep your antennae open! Revisit each risk, probability and impact Reprioritize risks worth focusing on Do this exercise periodically (e.g., once a month) and event driven (e.g., milestone)


Session 8 and 9

Typical Risks in Global Teams


Parity, Look for greener pastures Cultural differences Time zone and communication hassles Dependence on communication infrastructure


Technology Project Profiles

Outdated technology in different locations

9/11, Travel advisories, Governmental procedures
Session 8 and 9



Risk Management: Some Real Life Tips

Usually classify risk probability as High, Medium and Low Normalizing the $ impact to be round numbers Focusing attention on High/Medium probability events with a high impact Risk occurs in multiple levels, in tandem Risk impact usually has a cascading effect
Session 8 and 9


Topics Re-cap

What is Risk? What is Risk Management? Why is it important? Risk Management Cycle Risks and Mitigation for Global Teams Metrics in Risk Management


Session 8 and 9