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LAPORAN KASUS

IDENTITAS PASIEN
Nama Usia Jenis kelamin Alamat No.RM Nama orangtua Pekerjaan orangtua : An RT : 6 tahun : laki-laki : Pundungan 2/6 Jonggrangan, Klaten Utara : 593xxx : Bp. Subardi/ Ibu. Kujaima : Buruh/IRT

ANAMNESIS
Keluhan Utama : Demam 7 hari

2MSMRS Anak mengeluhkan batuk (+), dahak (+), dahak susah keluar, sesak napas (-), pilek (-), demam (-), mual (+), muntah (-). 1MSMRS Anak demam (+) tidak tinggi, naik turun, panas hanya di pagi hari, BAB cair (+) 2x/hari, mual (+), muntah (-), nafsu makan turun, pusing (+), batuk (+), sesak napas (+), berobat ke bidan.

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT SEKARANG

2HSMRS Demam (+) tidak tinggi, nyeri perut (+), mual (+), muntah (-), nafsu makan turun, BAB (+) N, BAK (+) N. HMRS Demam (+), mual (+), muntah (-), nafsu makan turun, ke RSIA cek darah , rujuk ke RSST

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT DAHULU


Riw diare (+) usia 1 tahun Riw asma (-) Riw alergi (-)

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT KELUARGA


Riw asma (-) Riw alergi (-) Keluarga serumah dengan demam (-)

42 th

39 th

18 th

12 th

6 th

6 th

RIWAYAT ANC/NC/PNC
Ibu G3P2A0 rutin kontrol di bidan, tdk pernah ada keluhan, HT(-), DM(-), kejang (-), demam (-) antenatal Ibu berusia 33 tahun P3A0 melahirkan di rumah sakit. Bayi berat lahir 2200 gr, UK 32 minggu, secara spontan, menangis kuat (+)

natal

Kontrol teratur dan imunisasi di puskesmas sesuai postnatal buku KMS. Ikterik (-)
Kesan: BBLR, preterm

RIWAYAT IMUNISASI
Menurut ibu, anak mendapatkan imunisasi dasar program pemerintah sesuai jadwal di puskesmas. BCG = usia 1 bulan Hep B = usia 0, 2, 3, 4 bulan

Polio = usia 1, 2, 3, 4 bulan


DPT = usia 2, 3, 4 bulan Campak = usia 9 bulan

KESAN: imunisasi sesuai jadwal

RIWAYAT MAKANAN
UMUR
0 21 bulan 21 bulan sekarang (6 tahun) ASI Nasi dengan lauk dan tidak suka sayuran 2-3 x 1 porsi/hari. Suka jajan jajanan di sekolah

JENIS MAKANAN

KESAN: riwayat makan kurang baik

RIWAYAT PERKEMBANGAN
Motorik kasar Motorik halus Bicara Sosial

Duduk (7 bulan) Jalan (13 bulan) Lari (2 tahun) Naik Sepeda (5 tahun)

Menulis (5 tahun)

Ucapkan kata (2 tahun)

Bermain (4 tahun)

Saat ini anak sudah duduk di kelas I SD, tinggal kelas (-), suka bermain bersama temanteman

Kesan Riwayat Perkembangan baik

RIWAYAT SOSIAL, EKONOMI, DAN LINGKUNGAN


Anak tinggal bersama kedua orang tua. Rumah berisi 6 orang ; orang tua dan keempat anak. Pekerjaan bapak sebagai buruh di luar kota, sedangkan ibu sebagai ibu rumah tangga. Penghasilan perbulan Rp. 1 juta. Rumah sederhana, beratapkan genting dan beralaskan ubin. Rumah memiliki 3 kamar tidur dan 1 kamar mandi yang terletak di dalam. Sumber air minum dan kebutuhan sehari-hari berasal dari pompa air. Rumah memiliki halaman rumah, dan dekat jalan raya. Ventilasi dan cahaya rumah baik. Pembiayaan RS menggunakan jamkesmas.

Kesan Sosial, ekonomi menengah ke bawah, dengan kondisi lingkungan cukup baik

ANAMNESIS SISTEM
Sistem CNS: penurunan kesadaran (-), kejang (-), demam (+) Sistem Cardiovaskular: kebiruan (-), bengkak (-), akral hangat Sistem Respiratorius: batuk (+), dahak (+), sesak (+), pilek (-) Sistem GIT: nyeri perut (+), mual (+), muntah (-), BAB (+) N, diare (-), Intake (+) Sistem Genitourinari: BAK dbn Sistem Musculoskeletal: Kelainan bentuk (-), bengkak (-). Nyeri sendi(-). Nyeri otot (-). Sistem Integumentum: Kuning(-), pucat (-)

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK 30 JULI 2013


Keadaan Umum : CM, anak tampak lemah Tanda Vital Nadi RR Suhu TD : 120 x/menit, teratur, kuat : 24 x/menit : 36,7 C : 100/50 mmHg

STATUS GIZI DAN ANTOPOMETRI


BB TB : 16 kg : 105 cm BB/U: -3<z-score<-2 (underweight) TB/U : -2<z-score<-1 (normal) BMI/U : -1<z-score<0 (normal)

Simpulan : Status gizi underweight

PEMERIKSAAN LEHER
Inspeksi Palpasi : JVP tak meningkat, benjolan (-) : JVP tak meningkat, lnn. tidak teraba

Simpulan : Dalam batas normal

SISTEM KARDIOVASKULAR
Inspeksi Palpasi Perkusi Auskultasi : IC tidak tampak : IC teraba pada SIC IV LMCS : tidak dilakukan : S1 tunggal, S2 split tak konstan, bising (-), murmur (-)

Simpulan : Dalam batas normal

SISTEM GASTROINTESTINAL
Pemeriksaan Abdomen I A Pe Pa : DP//DD, distended (-) : BU (+) kesan normal : Tympani : Supel, hepar tidak teraba, lien tidak teraba, ginjal tidak teraba, T/E dbn

Simpulan : Dalam batas normal

SISTEM GENITOURINARY
Flank Suprapubic OUE : bulging (-), nyeri ketok ginjal (-) : nyeri tekan (-); bulging (-) : inflamasi (-)

Simpulan : Dalam batas normal

ANOGENITAL
Laki-laki , anus (+)

EKSTREMITAS
Akral hangat Nadi kuat CRT<2 Edema

Simpulan : Dalam batas normal

PEMERIKSAAN KEPALA
Bentuk Mata Hidung Telinga : Mesocephal :Conjunctiva Anemis (-), Sklera Ikterik(-) : Sekret (-), nafas cuping hidung (-) : Nyeri tekan (-), Sekret (-)

Mulut : Sianosis (-), Mukosa bibir kering (-), bibir pucat (), stomatitis (-), lidah kotor (-)
Orofaring : Hiperemis (-) Pembesaran Tonsil (-)

LABORATORIUM DR 29/7/2013
WBC RBC HGB HCT MCV MCH MCHC PLT LYM MXD NEUT 24.3 5.41 13.4 40.5 74.9 24.8 33.1 467 12.2% 6,4 % 81,4 %

GDS : 127 mg/dl Widal Typhi H : +1/80 Widal Typhi O : +1/320 Na : 133 mmol/L K : 4.3 mmol/L Cl : 97 mmol/L

DIAGNOSIS KERJA

Susp. Typhoid fever

TATA LAKSANA
IVFD D5 NS 10 tpm makro
Inj. Chlorampenicol 100mg/kgBB/hari ~ 4 x 400mg IV Paracetamol 10mg/kgBB/x ~ Cth 1 1/2 k/p t 38oC

TERIMA KASIH

KASUS II

IDENTITAS PASIEN
Nama : An. R.A

Jenis kelamin
Usia No. RM Tempat tinggal Masuk Bangsal

: Laki-laki
: 5 tahun 6 bulan (24/1/2008) : 787169 : Jemawan, Jatinom : 24 Juli 2013, jam 13.15

Tgl. Periksa

: 25 Juli 2013, jam 14.00

ANAMNESIS
Keluhan Utama : Demam mendadak tinggi

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT SEKARANG


4 HSMRS

Hari Minggu (21 Juli 2013) pagi sekitar jam 10.00 anak mendadak demam tinggi terus terusan, nyeri kepala (+), mual (+), muntah (-), nyeri belakang mata (-), merasa pegal-pegal (-), gusi berdarah (-), mimisan (-), rash (-) batuk (+), pilek (+), nyeri perut (+) BAB dan BAK t.a.k, nafsu makan menurun, lemas (+). Anak dibawa ke dokter, diagnosis tidak diketahui, diberi obat thiamphenicol syrup dan paracetamol syrup.

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT SEKARANG


1 HSMRS Keluhan dirasakan tidak membaik,panas tidak turun turun , anak semakin lemas, akhirnya dibawa kembali berobat ke puskesmas. Dilakukan tes darah didapatkan Hb:11.8 AT:60.000 HCT:37% AL:1700. Didiagnosa sebagai DHF grade I. Pasien diusulkan untuk dirujuk ke RSUP Suradji Tirtonegoro.

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT SEKARANG


IGD

Anak dibawa ke RSS (24 Juli 2013) jam 13.15 Demam (+), mual (-), muntah (-), nyeri belakang bola mata (+), nyeri otot (-), lemas (+), tidak nafsu makan, perdarahan spontan (-), BAB dan BAK t.a.k, nyeri perut (+). Pemeriksaan fisik didapatkan demam 38c, takikardi (-), takipneu (-), Rumple Leed (+), hepatomegali 1 cm bac, tanda plasma leakage (-) berupa odem palpebra (-), ascites (-), efusi pleura (-), tanda syok (-) .

Hasil Lab: Hb 12,9 Hct 38,3 % AT 51.000 Didiagnosis DHF grade I (hari ke IV) Terapi IVFD RL 3 cc/kg/jam, parasetamol 10mg/kgbb/kali sprn, plan monitor KU, tanda vital, tanda syok, monitor HCT/AT tiap 6 jam.

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT SEKARANG


Hari I perawatan Hari ke 5 25 Juli 2013

Pasien masih demam (38,3 c), lemas, ada nyeri perut, dan nafsu makan cukup. Dari pemeriksaan fisik ditemukan edema palpebral (+), nyeri tekan epigastrik(+), hepatomegali 2cm bac, dan ascites(-). Tidak ada perdarahan spontan. Tidak terdapat tanda syok. Hb 13,1 Hct 38% AT 33.000 Assessment DHF grade I (hr ke-5), terapi dilanjutkan, monitor HCT/AT tiap 6 jam.

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT DAHULU


Riw. sakit serupa (-) Riw. Mondok (-)

RIWAYAT PENYAKIT KELUARGA


Riw. sakit serupa (-)

ANAMNESIS SISTEM
Demam (+) Sistem serebrospinal : kejang (-), penurunan kesadaran (-)

Sistem kardiovaskular : deg-degan (-), bising (-), sesak nafas (-), kebiruan (-)
Sistem pernapasan : sesak nafas (-), batuk (-) Sistem gastrointestinal : mual(+), muntah (-), diare (-)

Sistem urogenital : BAK (+)


Sistem muskuloskeletal : pegal-pegal (-), deformitas () Integumentum: ikterik (-), rash (+), kebiruan (-)

PEMERIKSAAN

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK (24 Juli 2013)


Kesan Umum
CM, kesan gizi cukup

Tanda Vital
Tekanan Darah : 100/60, manset kecil, posisi berbaring Nadi : 120 x/menit, simetris, isi dan tegangan cukup, teratur Napas : 24 x/menit, tipe abdominothoracal, reguler Suhu : 38,3 C Kesimpulan : suhu badan meningkat

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
Status Gizi
BB 15 kg TB 105 cm

BB/U : 0 < Z < -2 SD TB/U : 0 < Z < -2 SD BB/TB : -1 < Z < -2 SD KESAN: Status Gizi normal

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
Pulmo
Simetris Retraksi dinding dada (-) fremitus taktil +/+ Ketinggalan Gerak (-)

Pemeriksaan Thorax Inspeksi Palpasi

Cor IC tidak tampak IC teraba di SIC IV LMCS


Batas kanan atas: SIC II LPSD Batas kanan bawah: SIC IV LPSD Batas kiri atas: SIC II LPSS Batas kiri bawah: SIC IV LMCS S1 regular, S2 split tak konstan

Sonor +/+

Perkusi

vesikular (+/+), RBB (-/-), RBK (-/-), egofoni (-/-)

Auskultasi

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
ABDOMEN

Inspeksi Auskultasi Perkusi

: Dinding dada = dengan dinding perut,distensi (-), rash(-) : Bising usus normal : Hipertimpani (+)

Palpasi : Supel, nyeri tekan epigastrik (+), hepar teraba 1 cm b.a.c dan lien ttb

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
ANOGENITAL : Laki-laki, sirkumsisi (-), testis (+/+)

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
Extremitas
Akral hangat, CRT <2, edema (-)

Tungkai kanan Gerakan Tonus Trofi Clonus Refleks fisilogis Refleks patologis sensibilitas bebas N Eutrofi (-) (+) (-) (+) N

Tungkai kiri bebas N Eutrofi (-) (+) (-) (+) N

Lengan kanan bebas N Eutrofi

Lengan kiri bebas N Eutrofi

(+) (-) (+) N

(+) (-) (+) N

PEMERIKSAAN FISIK
Kulit Limfonodi : RL (+), rash (+) : Lnn. Cervicalis Anterior Sinistra (+) multiple. Diameter 0,5 cm. Nyeri tekan (-).

Kepala: Bentuk mesocephal Ubun-ubun kepala tertutup, ubun-ubun cekung (-) Mata: konjungtiva anemis (-) sklera ikterik(-), mata cowong (-), Edem Palpebra (+) Hidung:discharge(-), nasal flare (-) Telinga:discharge(-) Mulut: bibir kering(-), sianosis (-), stomatitis (-), lidah kotor (-) Otot : eutrofi

Tulang
Sendi

: deformitas(-)
: deformitas(-)

DIFFRENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
Dengue Fever

Dengue Hemorhagic Fever


Thypoid Fever

PEMERIKSAAN PENUNJANG
Tanggal 24/7/2013 (Puskesmas) 24/7/2013 (IGD RSST) 12.53 24/7/2013 17.41 24/7/2013 23.20 25/7/2013 5.40 25/7/2013 17.06 25/7/2013 22.09 Hb 11,8 12,9 Hct 37 38,3 AT 60.000 51.000

13 13,3 13,1 12,1 12,2

38,2 39 38,3 35,6 36

60.000 39.000 33.000 24.000 25.000

26/7/2013 5.08

13,7

40,6

29.000

DIAGNOSIS KLINIS
Demam Berdarah Dengue derajat I

PENATALAKSANAAN
Monitor KU/VS/BC per 6 jam Monitor Hct/PLT per 6 jam Infus RL 3 cc/kgbb/jam Paracetamol 10mg/kgbb/kali Sprn

PLAN: cek IgM/IgG anti Dengue Cek widal

Terima kasih

DENGUE & DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER


DR.I.SELVARAJ, IRMS Sr.D.M.O (Selction Grade), INDIAN RAILWAYS
B.SC.,M.B.B.S.,(M.D Community Medicine)., D.P.H., D.I.H., PGCH&FW (NIHFW, New Delhi)

BURDEN OF DISEASE IN S.E.ASIA


CATEGORY-A (INDONESIA,MYANMAR,AND THAILAND)

CATEGORY-B (INDIA,BANGALADESH,MALDIVES,AND SRILANKA)


CATEGORY-C (BHUTAN, NEPAL)

CATEGORY-D (DPR KOREA)

Dengue Virus
1. Causes dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever 2. It is an arbovirus 3. Transmitted by mosquitoes 4. Composed of single-stranded RNA 5. Has 4 serotypes (DEN-1, 2, 3, 4)

Dengue Virus
Each serotype provides specific lifetime immunity, and short-term cross-immunity All serotypes can cause severe and fatal disease Genetic variation within serotypes Some genetic variants within each serotype appear to be more virulent or have greater epidemic potential

The most common epidemic vector of dengue in the world is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. It can be identified by the white bands or scale patterns on its legs and thorax.

Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Fever Fever Headache Muscle and joint pain Nausea/vomiting Rash Hemorrhagic manifestations

Patients may also report other symptoms, such as itching and aberrations in the sense of taste, particularly a metallic taste. In addition, there have been reports of severe depression after the acute phase of the illness.

1.The virus is inoculated into humans with the mosquito saliva. 2.The virus localizes and replicates in various target organs, for example, local lymph nodes and the liver. 3.The virus is then released from these tissues and spreads through the blood to infect white blood cells and other lymphatic tissues. 4.The virus is then released from these tissues and circulates in the blood.

5.The mosquito ingests blood containing the virus. 6.The virus replicates in the mosquito midgut, the ovaries, nerve tissue and fat body. It then escapes into the body cavity, and later infects the salivary glands. 7.The virus replicates in the salivary glands and when the mosquito bites another human, the cycle continues.

The transmission cycle of dengue virus by the mosquito Aedes aegypti begins with a dengue-infected person. This person will have virus circulating in the blooda viremia that lasts for about five days. During the viremic period, an uninfected female Aedes aegypti mosquito bites the person and ingests blood that contains dengue virus. Although there is some evidence of transovarial transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti, usually mosquitoes are only infected by biting a viremic person. Then, within the mosquito, the virus replicates during an extrinsic incubation period of eight to twelve days. The mosquito then bites a susceptible person and transmits the virus to him or her, as well as to every other susceptible person the mosquito bites for the rest of its lifetime. The virus then replicates in the second person and produces symptoms. The symptoms begin to appear an average of four to seven days after the mosquito bitethis is the intrinsic incubation period, within humans. While the intrinsic incubation period averages from four to seven days, it can range from three to 14 days. The viremia begins slightly before the onset of symptoms. Symptoms caused by dengue infection may last three to 10 days, with an average of five days, after the onset of symptomsso the illness persists several days after the viremia has ended.

There are actually four dengue clinical syndromes: 1. Undifferentiated fever; 2. Classic dengue fever; 3. Dengue hemorrhagic fever, or DHF; and 4. Dengue shock syndrome, or DSS. Dengue shock syndrome is actually a severe form of DHF.

Clinical Case Definition for Dengue Fever


Classical Dengue fever or Break bone fever is an acute febrile viral disease frequently presenting with headaches, bone or joint pain, muscular pains,rash,and leucopenia

Clinical Case Definition for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever


4 Necessary Criteria: 1. Fever, or recent history of acute fever 2. Hemorrhagic manifestations 3. Low platelet count (100,000/mm3 or less) 4. Objective evidence of leaky capillaries: elevated hematocrit (20% or more over baseline) low albumin pleural or other effusions

Clinical Case Definition for Dengue Shock Syndrome 4 criteria for DHF

+
Evidence of circulatory failure manifested indirectly by all of the following: Rapid and weak pulse Narrow pulse pressure (< 20 mm Hg) OR hypotension for age Cold, clammy skin and altered mental status

Hemorrhagic Manifestations of Dengue


Skin hemorrhages: petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses Gingival bleeding Nasal bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding: Hematemesis, melena, hematochezia Hematuria Increased menstrual flow

Signs and Symptoms of Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Associated with Acute Dengue Infection


Decreased level of consciousness: lethargy, confusion, coma Seizures Nuchal rigidity Paresis

Four Grades of DHF


Grade 1 Fever and nonspecific constitutional symptoms Positive tourniquet test is only hemorrhagic manifestation Grade 2 Grade 1 manifestations + spontaneous bleeding Grade 3 Signs of circulatory failure (rapid/weak pulse, narrow pulse pressure, hypotension, cold/clammy skin) Grade 4 Profound shock (undetectable pulse and BP)

Danger Signs in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Abdominal pain - intense and sustained Persistent vomiting Abrupt change from fever to hypothermia, with sweating and prostration Restlessness or somnolence

*All of these are signs of impending shock and


should alert clinicians that the patient needs close observation and fluids.

This thermometer illustrates the developments in the illness that are progressive warning signs that DSS may occur. The initial evaluation is made by determining how many days have passed since the onset of symptoms. Most patients who develop DSS do so 3-6 days after onset of symptoms. Therefore, if a patient is seven days into the illness, it is likely that the worst is over. If the fever goes between three and six days after the symptoms began, this is a warning signal that the patient must be closely observed, as shock often occurs at or around the disappearance of fever. Other early warning signs to be alert for include a drop in platelets, an increase in hematocrit, or other signs of plasma leakage. If you document hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia and other signs of DHF and the patient meets the criteria for DHF, the prognosis and the patient's risk category have changed. Though dengue fever does not often cause fatalities, a greater proportion of DHF cases are fatal. The next concern would be observation of the danger signssevere abdominal pain, change in mental status, vomiting and abrupt change from fever to hypothermia. These often herald the onset of DSS. The goal of treatment is to prevent shock. The plasma leakage syndrome is self-limited. If you can support the patient through the plasma leakage phase and provide sufficient fluids to prevent shock, the illness will resolve itself.

TERIMA KASIH