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Protokol dan Pensinyalan

TET6166

Protokol dan Pensinyalan


2 SKS Tujuan Pembelajaran: Memahami fungsi protokol dan pensinyalan di jaringan Telekomunikasi serta standarisasi protokol dan Pensinyalan. Silabus: Pengertian Protokol & Pensinyalan, Standarisasi protokol dan Pensinyalan, Protokol dan Pensinyalan pada jaringan Telekomunikasi fix, Protokol dan Pensinyalan pada jaringan telekomunikasi bergerak, Protokol dan Pensinyalan pada Internetworking. Prasyarat: Sistem Komunikasi; Komunikasi Data dan Teknik Penyambungan Buku Ajar : Data Communications, Computer Network, William Stalling Data and Computer CommunicationComputer Network, Fred Hallshall Signalling in Telecommunication Network

Protokol dan Arsitektur Protokol


Bila :
Terminal Komputer Other Data Processing Devices

Exchange Data

Diperlukan

Data path : - direct - via comm net.

Tahapan yang harus dilakukan :

Sistem sumber harus : Mengaktifkan jalur (path) komunikasi langsung atau menginformasikan identitas sistim tujuan yang diinginkan ke jaringan komunikasi. Memastikan destination system siap menerima data.
bahwa program manajemen file pada destination system siap menerima dan menyimpan file for this particular user.

Aplikasi transfer file pada source system harus memastikan

Perform a format translation function if the file format used on

the two system are incompatible.

Konsep Komunikasi Komputer/Computer Network


Protocol
Pada Computer Science: Suatu prosedur standar untuk mengatur transmisi data antar komputer.

Computer Communication Architecture or protocol Architecture

Protocols
Digunakan untuk komunikasi antar entitas pada sistem yang berbeda Contoh entitas :
file transfer packages data base managenment system program aplikasi user eletronic mail facilititis terminal

contoh system :
Computer Terminal Remote sensors

Komunikasi antar entitas akan sukses bila :


Speak the same langguage
What is communicated How it is communicated When it is communicated
Harus diatur bersama antar entitas

Protocol

Elemen-elemen Protocol
Syntax :
format data, level signal

Semantic :
Informasi kontrol untuk koordinasi dan error handling

Timing :
Speed, matching and sequencing

Karakteristik Protokol
Direct/Indirect Monolitic/Structured Symetric/Asymetric (peer to peer/Client Server) Standard/Non Standard

Direct
Point to point

Multipoint broadcast Network

Indirect
Switched Network

Internet

Fungsi Protokol
Encapsulation Segmentation and reassembly Connection Control Ordered delivery Flow Control Error Control Addressing Multiplexing Transmission Services

Encapsulation
PDU
Data + Informasi Kontrol

Address (Sender & Receiver) EDC Protokol Kontrol

Segmentation & Reassembly


Why ? Jaringan Komunikasi hanya menerima blok data hingga ukuran tertentu. Contoh : ATM net 53 Oktet Ethernet 1526 Oktet
Error Control lebih efisien dilakukan dengan ukuran PDU
Saat retransmisi lebih kecil More equitable access to shared transmission facilities. Can allocate smaller buffer For check point and restart/ recovery operation.

Connection Control
Pada Connectionless tidak diperlukan Pada Connection Oriented Phasa komunikasi :
Connection establishment Data transfer Connection termination

Addressing
Lingkup : Addressing Level (Pada arsitektur) Addressing scope Connection Identifier Addressing Mode (Unicast, Multicast, Broadcast)

Transmission Services
Priority QOS Security

Arsitektur Protokol
OSI Reference Model (ISO 7498)
Application Presentation Application Presentation

Session Transport
Network Data link Phisical Comm. Path

Session Transport
Network Data link Phisical

TCP/IP Protocol Architecture


Application Layer
Provide communication between process/application on separate host

Host to Host / Transport Layer

Provide end to end, data transfer services. (reliable)

Internet Layer Network Access Layer

Concerned with routing data from source to dest. Host

Concerned with the Logical Interface between an end system and a subnetwork. Defines characteristics of the transmission medium, signalling rate, and signal encoding scheme.

Phisical Layer

Element Pelayanan (Services Element)


Framing Penandaan awal dan akhir frame data (Layers 1 & 2 only) Addresses Menjamin data dikiri pada penerima yang benar. Handshake Ensures fully synchronized communicating layer processes Applies to connection-oriented protocols Acknowledgements Pemberitahuan sinyal diterima dengan benar ke sender. Sequence numbers Used in conjunction with acknowledgements and service elements Timers Penentuan delay maksimum sebelum ack yang diharapkan datang.

Element Pelayanan

Error control
Error detection :
sender computes checksum or check code Receiver recalculates and compares with received value

Error correction:
Sender retransmits information (sometimes called backward error correction) Or (more rarely) receiver locates and corrects error(s) Called forward error correction

Flow control
Receiver requests sender to reduce sending rate

Optional service elements include


Congestion control: sender detects network congestion and reduces its sending rate Timestamps: allows data to carry senders clocking information Authentication: sender verifies itself to receiver Encryption: sender hides information using unbreakable code

Level Pelayanan ( Services Level)


Pengertian Pelayanan : Suatu facility yang disediakan untuk digunakan user.
For example the telephone service

Kapabilitas untuk menyampaikan protocol Kumpulan pelayanan yang disediakan oleh by a set of layered protocols
For example, Transport Service, Network Service

Tiga level Pelayanan : Best-efforts Basic connection-oriented Reliable

Protocol Type

Elements Used Data transfer, addressing May also include: framing and checksum All of the above, plus handshake to set up and release connection May include error detection

Service Level Best efforts (no delivery guarantees) Sequenced information transfer (But delivery not guaranteed; errors cause data unit to be discarded)

Connectionless

Basic ConnectionOriented

Increasing complexity, which means increasingly more processintensive

Full (Reliable) ConnectionOriented

All of the above, plus, sequence Guarantees to numbers, deliver information acknowledgement in sequence and s, flow control, without loss or error detection and corruption error correction

Layering Service Levels


Tidak diperlukan setiap protocol pada lapisan di set reliable
Can run a best efforts protocol on top of a reliable service
Reduces overall complexity
simple protocol reliable service

Can run a reliable protocol on top of a bestefforts service


Enhances reliability of underlying service

reliable protocol
best-efforts service

Diusahakan tanpa duplikasi


The additional complexity increases processing overhead and reduces throughput

intelligent hosts

Two trends in modern protocol suites


Spread service elements over a number of layers Reduce complexity of Network Service (Layers 1-3)
simple network

NEXT WEEK

Operasi Protocol
Protocols normally designed as two-way (or fullduplex)
Two communicating parties, each with a sending and a receiving process
Model is independent of any specific communications layer

Data normally buffered awaiting acknowledgement at the sender, and also buffered awaiting processing at the receiver

Some protocols operate between one sender and multiple receivers


multicasting protocols
A
sending process receiving process B receiving process sending process

buffers

Time Sequence Diagrams


Digunakan untuk mengilustrasikan operasi protokol.
Sender on left, receiver on right, lower layer service in the middle Time runs down the page
A SENDER time
protocol primitive

B LOWER LAYER SERVICE RECEIVER

protocol primitive

Connectionless Protocol
A sending process
receiving process
data blocks, including headers from current layer and layer(s) above

B receiving process sending process

Bagaimana mencapai best efforts communications?


Setiap party mengirimkan data bila siap dan mengetahui penerimaan benar.

Beberapa problema.
Kegagalan acknowledgements menyebabkan protocol berada pada keadaan tak menentu.
Loss hard to detect, for example

Bila sender and receiver tidak sinkron, sulit untuk menyinkronkan aplikasi.

Working With Connectionless Protocols


A
request

reply

Can be made to work if higher layers constrained to sending or receiving Only one data block exchanged at a time (half-duplex mode) Each block elicits some sort of reply from remote higher layer Explicit acknowledgement or return data block This approach often used for simple request-reply protocols For example, name-to-address resolution Also works if a higher layer protocol operates at a higher service level Is a reliable service, for example

Connection-Oriented Services
Most obvious difference is the inclusion of handshakes
For connection set-up and release
A
open

Facilitates sender and receiver synchronization


For example, to exchange opening sequence numbers To define service class (ATM)

ack

Connection available for use

close

Open also triggers network path set-up


Allows service to incorporate sequential delivery without incorporating sequence numbers

ack

Addition of sequence numbers to Simple CO Examples ATM, FR protocol header allows delivery sequence to be checked by receiver

More Complex CO Examples TCP, FTP, HDLC

Working With Sequence Numbers


Sequence numbers added to A transfer in each direction Validated against next expected sequence number at receiver ACKs, if used Carry next expected sequence number Can be piggybacked with data sent in other direction In which case frame header includes both sending and next expected sequence numbers Note that ACK can be cumulative Single ACK acknowledges correct reception of a sequence of data frames
B
data(0)

data(1)

data(2)

either ack(3)

or

data(0,3)