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CE 5101 Lecture 6 1D
Consolidation
Oct 2013
Prof Harry Tan
2
Outline
Terzaghi Theory
Useful Elastic Solutions
Oedometer Tests
FEM Theory
FEM compared with Terzaghi
Consolidation of Realistic Soils
Example of Consolidation in Reclaimed Land
Secondary Compression and Creep
3
Terzaghi 1D Vertical Flow
Formulation of Theory
Useful Approximations
Elastic Solutions
4
1D CONSOLIDATION
Assumptions made:
soil is fully saturated
pore water is incompressible
Darcy's law is valid
isotropic (constant) permeability
linear elastic soil behaviour
load applied instantaneously
one-dimensional problem (length of applied load > )
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1D CONSOLIDATION
soft clay layer
fully saturated
z
p
w
= p
w, o
o = o
o

rigid impermeable layer
D
initial
ground surface
apply surcharge load Ao rapidly

rigid impermeable layer
p
w
= p
w, o
+

Ap
w, t=o
Ap
w, t=o
= Ao
o = o
o

t = 0

rigid impermeable layer
p
w
= p
w, o
+

Ap
w, t
Ap
w, t
= Ao Ao
t

o = o
o
+ Ao
t

settlement As
t
0 < t <
consolidation takes place

rigid impermeable layer
p
w
= p
w, o
o = o
o
+ Ao
settlement As

t =

consolidation process completed

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1D CONSOLIDATION

2
w
2
v
w
z
p
c
t
p
c
A c
=
c
A c
w
oed
v

E k
c =

=
0 m
T M
t
v
2
e
M
2
1 U
the change in pore pressure (Ap
w
) with time and
position within the layer can be expressed by the
partial differential equation
with
c
v
. coefficient of consolidation

with boundary conditions:
Ap
w
= 0 at the top of layer (independent of t)
no flow at bottom of layer
Ap
w
= Ao at t = 0 (independent of z)
Ap
w
= 0 at t = (independent of z)

( ) 1 m 2
2
1
M + t =
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1D CONSOLIDATION

t
D
E k
D
t c
T
2
w
oed
2
v
v
= =
U
t
average degree of consolidation

T
v
dimensionless time factor

A
A
=
A
A A
=
s
s
p
p p
U
t
0 , w
t , w o , w
t
NOTE:
D .... drainage path, NOT thickness of layer !
U .... depends on T
v
and boundary conditions
T
v
... depends on problem (Ap
w, o
- distribution)

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1D CONSOLIDATION
clay layer
fully saturated
z
Ao /
w
t = 0
impermeable
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t = t
1
t = t
2
t =
t = t
3
horizontal tangent > dv/dz = 0
(no flow) at bottom boundary
slope of Isochrones
> hydraulic gradient
t
1
: bottom of layer not yet influenced
by consolidation process
D
surcharge load Ao
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1D CONSOLIDATION
degree of consolidation U
t
permeable

permeable

D

D

T
v
Isochrones: lines of excess pore pressures (Ap
w, t
) at a given time
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Terzaghi 1D Vertical Flow
Consolidation
5 . 0 . . , 2 . 0 s s
v v
U e i T
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

~ ~
21 . 0
4
4
2
2
2
1
8
1
v
v
T
T
v
e e U
t
t
t
t
v
v
T
U 2 ~
For
Then
For
Then
5 . 0 . . , 2 . 0 > >
v v
U e i T
T
v
is Time factor
c
v
is Coeficient of
Consolidation
w v
v
v
v
v
m
k
c
H
t c
T

=
=
2
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Drainage Boundaries

When k is 2 orders smaller it behaves like an impermeable boundary eg
k=1e-8 m/s is an impermeable boundary to sand of k=1e-6 m/s
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Initial Excess Pore Pressures
Distributions
Case 0
Case 0
Case 0
Case 0
Case 1
Case 2
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Initial Excess PP Distributions
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Initial Excess PP Distributions
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Initial Excess PP Distributions
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Superposition of Elastic Solutions
drained
undrained
=
+
Case 0
Case 1
A
A0
A1
For a given Tv, find U0 and U1
Combined U = U0(A0/A) + U1(A1/A)
What may produce this initial Excess PP??
Reclaimed Clay Fill self weight combined with
Imposed Sand Capping weight above reclaimed clay fill
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Superposition of Elastic Solutions
Let ultimate settlement be S
Af
Then degree of consolidation for A is:
By definition:

Therefore:

Now the amount of settlement is proportional to the area under the
pore pressure isochrones. Thus the ultimate settlement is
proportional to the area of the initial excess PP isochrones:



Therefore,
Af Af Af
A
S
A S
S
A S
S
A S
U
) 1 ( ) 0 ( ) (
+ = =
f A
A
f A
A
S
A S
U
S
A S
U
1
1
0
0
) 1 (
;
) 0 (
= =
Af
f A
A
Af
f A
A A
S
S
U
S
S
U U
1
1
0
0
+ =
A
A
Af
f A
A
A
Af
f A
A
A
S
S
A
A
S
S
1
1
0
0
; = =
A
A
A
A
A
A A
A
A
U
A
A
U U
1
1
0
0
+ =
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1D Consolidation Test (Oedometer Test)
Void ratio corresponding to full consolidation for each load
increment is calculated backwards from final water content and
final thickness readings
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e vs P curve depends on stress history
deposition gives normal curve (Normally Consolidated Soils)
unloading by erosion or removal of soil load gives swelling
curve (Over-consolidated Soils)
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By Eye Method for Determining Pc
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Casagrande Method for Determining Pc
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EX Casagrande Method for Determining Pc
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Log-log Method for Determining Pc
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Determine Pc - Janbu

Pc
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Idealized 1D Consolidation e-logP Curve
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Correction to get Field Curve for NC Clays
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Correction to get Field Curve for OC Clays
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Factors Affecting Accuracy of Pc
Sample Disturbance
Load Increment Ratio
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Factors Affecting Accuracy of Pc
Load Increment Duration
Related to the influence of
secondary compression on
test results
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Taylor Square root time Method for cv
Experimental Curve
Theory Curve
Correction ratio
=0.9209/0.7976=
1.15
T
v90
= 0.848
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Casagrande Log time Method for cv
Correction for U
0

based on parabolic
relation upto U
50

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Example of
Use of Sqrt
time and log
time
methods
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Rectangular Hyperbolic Method for cv
Sridharan and Prakash 1981,1985
2972 . 0 B
t for 35 . 1 A
t for 04 . 2 A
where
c
BmH
c and
) 1 A ( m
c
t
, Therefore
Amt / t
c mt
C MT
/ t
U / T
90
60
2
v
=
=
=
=

=
=
+
+
=
o
o
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Example of Hyperbolic Method
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What is a high quality test?

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Cv is one order larger in OC state
compare to NC state

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FEM Theory
Formulation
Stress Equilibrium Deformation Part
Continuity Equilibrium Hydraulic Part
Global Assembly
Step by step Integration (Implicit Method)
Output
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FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (1)
Effective stresses
Constitutive law
Discretization
In terms of excess pore pressure
same shape functions for
displacements and pore pressures
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FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (2)
Mechanical problem: equilibrium equation
Stiffness matrix
Coupling matrix
Incremental load vector
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FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (2)
Hydraulic (flow) problem: continuity equation
Flow matrix
Coupling matrix
Water compressibility matrix
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FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (3)
Global system of equations
Step-by-step integration procedure
0 < o < 1 ; Generally, o =1 (fully implicit)
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FINITE ELEMENT FORMULATION FOR CONSOLIDATION (4)
Time step
Automatic time stepping is required
Critical time step
Consolidation analysis
Prescribed time
Maximum excess pore pressure
v
c
H
80
2
=
v
c
H
40
2
=
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FEM compare Terzaghi

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Plaxis Model at 1 day
Load = 100 kPa
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FEM compare Terzaghi
Terzhagi theory
Plaxis Ver 9.0
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FEM compare Terzaghi
Terzhagi theory
Plaxis
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Fully Coupled with Unsaturated
Soil Model - Plaxis 2010
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Fully Coupled with Unsaturated
Soil Model - Plaxis 2010
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Fully Coupled with Unsaturated
Soil Model - Plaxis 2010
Results for Terzaghis 1D Consolidation Test
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Real Soils Consolidation
Cv is not constant with consolidation
process
Both kv and mv (or Eoed) are varied as
consolidation progress
Cv is one order larger for OC state
compared to NC state
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1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
Investigate influence of:
compressibility of pore water
(by means of B-value)
permeability depending on void ratio
elastic-plastic soil behaviour
(by means of changing constitutive model)
applied load = 100 kPa
soil layer 2D = 10 m
drainage at top and bottom
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1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
time [days]
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
s
e
t
t
l
e
m
e
n
t

[
m
m
]
0
20
40
60
80
100
reference elastic
pore water compressible
(B=0.85)
permeability e-dependent
Hardening Soil model
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1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
time [days]
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
e
x
c
e
s
s

p
o
r
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
k
P
a
]
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
reference elastic
pore water compressible
(B=0.85)
permeability e-dependent
Hardening Soil model
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distribution of excess pore pressures at 50% consolidation along centre line
elastic Hardening Soil model
1D CONSOLIDATION NUMERICAL SIMULATION
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influence of parameters in HS-model
time [days]
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
v
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
s

[
m
m
]
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
HS_ref
B=0.85
E
50
<
E
50
>
K
o_nc
>
K
o_nc
<
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influence of parameters in HS-model
time [days]
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
e
x
c
e
s
s

p
o
r
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
k
P
a
]
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
HS_ref
B=0.85
E
50
<
E
50
>
E
oed
<
K
o_nc
>
K
o_nc
<
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influence of parameters in HS-model
time [days]
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
d
e
g
r
e
e

o
f

c
o
n
s
o
l
i
d
a
t
i
o
n

[
%
]
0
20
40
60
80
100
HS_ref
B=0.85
E
50
<
E
50
>
E
oed
>
K
o_nc
>
K
o_nc
<
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Consolidation Modeling in a
Reclaimed Land
Why a Mohr-Coulomb Model is
grossly incorrect ?

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Consider a Reclaimed Land
Sand Loading in 365 days
10m Reclaim Sand
15m Marine Clay
Sea Bed
Closed
consolidation
boundaries all
round
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Soil Parameters
Equivalent Oedometer Parameters in HS Model:
Cc=1.0 Cs=0.1 eo=2.0 and m=1.0 for logarithmic compression response
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HS Model can produce results very close to Oedometer Test Data
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Compare Settlements of seabed
MC = 400 mm in 2500 days
HS = 4,350 mm in 12,700 days
Which Model is Correct ?
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Amount of Settlement
Single layer 1-D compression Estimate:

Cc=1.0, eo=2.0, Ho=15m
Po = 7.5m*5 = 37.5 kPa
P_inc = 10m*18 = 180 kPa
Pf = Po+P_inc = 217.5 kPa
Sett = Ho*Cc/(1+eo)*log(Pf/Po) = 15000*0.254 = 3,817 mm

This is a single layer computation and it grossly under-estimate
amount of settlements; but 3,817 mm >> 400 mm by MC Model, and
is much closer to 4,330 mm by HS Model
Thus HS Model gave realistic answer and MC Model is grossly
incorrect
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Compare with Program UniSettle
Using same oedometer
parameters of Cc=1.0,
eo=2.0;
UniSettle = 4428 mm
HS = 4350 mm
UniSettle 15-layer
computation gave same
results as Plaxis HS model
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Conclusions
MC Model cannot be used for consolidation
analysis of soft soils
The linear elastic model in MC cannot predict
both the rate and amount of consolidation
settlements of highly nonlinear soft clays
The HS Model with equivalent oedometer
parameters will give very good predictions of
both rate and amount of consolidation
settlements
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Secondary Compression - Creep Effects,
continued settlements under constant
effective stress
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Definition of Secondary Compression Index
ion consolidat primary of end
at time t where
t
t
log
e e
t log
e
C
p
p
p
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =
A
A
o
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Bjerrum data on Secondary Compression in 1D
Oedometer Test
Apparent Pc
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Relation between Instantaneous and delayed
compression (a) for different thickness (b) for
given thickness
Secondary compression index is independent of soil
thickness for most cases
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Effect of Magnitude of Stress Increment: ratio of
secondary to primary compression is largest when
stress increment to initial stress is small
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Effects of Pre-consolidation Pressure on c
v

and C
o
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Typical values for C
o
NC Clays 0.005-0.02
Organic Clays, highly
plastic > 0.03
OCR> 2 <0.001
Values of C
o
/ C
c
Organic Silts 0.035-0.06
Peats 0.035-0.085
Canadian Muskeg 0.09-0.1
Singapore MC 0.04-0.06
SF Baymud 0.04-0.06
Leda Clay 0.03-0.06

Creep Settlements by Janbu
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Can identify 3 different phases for 3
different mechanisms of settlements:
Immediate is Elastic Undrained
Compression
Consolidation is Drained (elastic
plus plastic) Cap Compression
Creep is time-dependent secondary
compression at constant effective
stress
Creep Settlements by Janbu
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Creep Settlements by Janbu
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