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PRESENTED BY: AMIRUR RAHMAN SUDIPTA KUNDU ATANU BISWAS DIPANWITA DEY SONIA PAUL

CONTENTS/INDEX

WHAT ARE FAULTS


Faults usually occur in a power system due to either

insulation failure, flashover, physical damage or human error. These faults, may either be three phase in nature involving all three phases in a symmetrical manner, or may be asymmetrical where usually only one or two phases may be involved. Faults may also be caused by either short-circuits to earth or between live conductors, or may be caused by broken conductors in one or more phases. Sometimes simultaneous faults may occur involving both short-circuit and broken conductor faults (also known as open-circuit faults).

EFFECTS OF FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEM


Flow of excessive current Greatly increased damage at the

fault location (Fault energy = 1 x Rf x t where t is time) Danger to operating personnel (Flash products) The heavy current due to shortcircuit causes excessive heating which may result in fire or explosion. Sometimes short-circuit takes the form of an arc and causes considerable damage to the system.

EFFECTS OF FAULTS ON POWER SYSTEM


Higher mechanical and thermal stressing of all items

of plant carrying the current fault


If allowed to persist for a long period, slow

electromechanical transients may cause instability of the interconnected system by pulling synchronous machines out of synchronism

Faults - Types
Faults can be broadly classified into two main areas which have been designated:
Active Faults : Active fault is when actual current
flows from one phase conductor to another or alternatively from one phase conductor to earth . This type of fault can also be further classified into two areas, i) Solid fault ii)incipient fault Passive Faults: Passive faults are not real faults in the
true sense of the word but are rather conditions that are stressing the system beyond its design capacity.

NEED FOR FAULT ANALYSIS


Design of protection system requires the knowledge of

fault current. The information obtained from the fault studies are used to select the rating and sizes of protective devices such as:

fuses circuit breaker

SOFTWARES AVAILABLE FOR CARRYING FAULT ANALYSIS


The most commonly used soft ware are:
MATLAB

EDSA
ETAP CYME

TRANSIENT FAULT
A transient fault is a fault that

is no longer present if power is disconnected for a short time. Many faults in overhead powerlines are transient in nature. Typical examples of transient faults include:
momentary tree contact
bird or other animal contact lightning strike conductor clash

PERMANENT FAULT
Permanent faults, as the name

implies, are the result of permanent damage to the insulation. In this case, the equipment has to be repaired and reclosing must not be entertained.

SYMMETRIC FAULT
That fault on the power system which gives rise to symmetrical fault currents (i.e. equal fault currents in the lines with 120 displacement) is called a symmetrical fault.

SYMMETRIC FAULT
The symmetric, symmetrical or balanced

fault affects each of the three-phases equally In transmission line faults, roughly 5% are symmetric This is in contrast to an asymmetric fault, where the three phases are not affected equally In practice, most faults in power systems are unbalanced

ASYMMETRIC FAULT
An asymmetric or unbalanced fault does not affect each

of the three phases equally. Common types of asymmetric faults, and their causes: line-to-line - a short circuit between lines, caused by ionization of air, or when lines come into physical contact, for example due to a broken insulator line-to-ground - a short circuit between one line and ground, very often caused by physical contact, for example due to lightning or other storm damage double line-to-ground - two lines come into contact with the ground (and each other), also commonly due to storm damage

ASYMMETRIC FAULT
Thus as mentioned there are three ways in which unsymmetrical faults may occur in a power system: (i) Single line-to-ground fault (L G) (ii) Line-to-line fault (L L) (iii) Doube line-to-ground fault (L L G)

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE PHASE SYSTEM


The calculation procedure known as method of

symmetrical components is used to determine the currents and voltages on the occurrence of an unsymmetrical fault. of equal magnitude, displaced by 120 & 240o respectively and having the phase sequence of abca. of equal magnitude displaced by 240 & 120o respectively, having phase sequence of acba.

The positive sequence set consisting of three components

The negative sequence set consisting of three components

The zero sequence set of the component of which being

equal both in magnitude and and phase.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE PHASE SYSTEM


The phasor representation of three phase system:

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
A circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which can (i) make or break a circuit either manually or by remote control under normal conditions (ii) break a circuit automatically under fault conditions (iii) make a circuit either manually or by remote control under fault conditions

CLASSIFICATION OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS


The most general way of classification is on the basis of medium used for arc extinction. Accordingly, circuit breakers may be classified into : (i) Oil circuit breakers which employ some insulating oil (e.g., transformer oil) for arc extinction. (ii) Air-blast circuit breakers in which high pressure airblast is used for extinguishing the arc. (iii) Sulphur hexafluroide circuit breakers in which sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas is used for arc extinction. (iv) Vacuum circuit breakers in which vacuum is used for arc extinction

FUSES
A fuse is a short piece of metal,

inserted in the circuit, which melts when excessive current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. Fuse is the simplest current interrupting device for protection against excessive currents. In general, fuses may be classified into : (i) Low voltages fuses (ii) High voltage fuses

PROTECTIVE RELAYS
A protective relay is a device that

detects the fault and initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to ioslate the defective element from the rest of the system. Having detected the fault, the relay operates to close the trip circuit of the breaker. This results in the opening of the breaker and disconnection of the faulty circuit.

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES