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Aditia Ega Nugraha Anendya Niervana Annisa Syafrita Dian Ratna Mahita Kamila Shaumi Ihsan


Adverbial clause is a clause that describes the main clause. He saw an accident when he was walking home.
Words that introduce adverb clauses are called subordinating conjunctions. Adverbial clause explains the main clause preceded by the specific conjunction.

While he was walking home, he saw an accident.

Subordinating Conjunction














Using Adverbs to Show cause and effect

Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. Now that the semester is over, Im going to rest a few days and then take a trip.

Now that means because now. It is used for present causes of present or future situations.

Since he's not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert.

Expressing Contrast (Unexpected Result) : using even though

(a) Because the weather was cold, I didnt go

(b) Even though the weather was cold, I went Even though means despite the fact that and is a more emphatic
version of though and although. swimming.

Even though is used to express unexpected results.

(c) Because I wasnt tired, I didnt go to bed. (d) Even though I wasnt tired, I went to bed. (e) I was here all the time even though you couldn't see me

Note: Like because, even though introduces an adverb clause.

Expressing Direct Contrast

Adverb Clauses Whereas While (a) Mary is rich, whereas John is poor (b) Mary is rich, while John is poor (c) Whereas Mary is rich, John is poor Whereas and while are used to show direct opposition: this is exactly the opposite of that. Whereas and while may be used with the idea either clause with no difference in meaning.

Note: a comma is usually used even if the adverb clause comes second

Expressing Conditions in Adverb Clauses: If-Clauses

If it rains, the streets get wet. If clauses (also called adverb clauses of condition) present possible conditions. The main clause expresses results. Possible conditions: it rains Result : the street get wet A present tense, not a future tense, is used in an if clause eventhough the verb in the if clause may refer to a future event or situation.

if it rains tomorrow, i will take my umbrella.

Words that introduce adverb clauses of condition if clauses If Whether or not Even if in case (that) in the event (that) unless only if providing (that) provided (that)

Adverb Clauses of Conditions: Using Whether Or Not and Even If

WHETHER OR NOT (a) Im going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold. (OR: whether its cold or not.) EVEN IF (b) I have decided to go swimming tomorrow. Even if the whether is cold, im going to go swimming. Whether or not expresses the idea that neither this condition nor that condition matters; the result will be the same. Sentence with even if are close in meaning to those with whether or not. Even if gives the idea that a particular condition doesnt matter. The result will not change.

Compare If Clauses With Even If Clauses

If Ann studies hard, she will pass the exams. If Clauses are followed by expected results. Condition : Ann studies Expected results : She passes the exam Even if Mary studies hard, she wont pass the exam. Even if clauses are followed by unexpected results. Condition : Mary studies Unexpected result : She doesnt pass the exam

Adverb Clauses of Conditions: Using In case

(a) Ill be at my uncles house in case you (should) need to reach me. (b) In the event that you (should) need to reach me, Ill be at my uncles house. In case that and in the event that express the idea that something probably wont happen, but it might. In case/in the event that= if by any chance this should happen.* Notes: In the event that is more formal than in case. The use of should in the adverb clause emphasizes the speaker s uncertainty that something will happen.

*In case that and in the evnt that introduce adverb clauses. In case of and in the event of have the same meaning. But they are prepositions followed by a noun object: In case of trouble, call the police: In case (that) there is trouble, call the police.

Adverb Clauses of Conditions: Using Unless

(a) Ill go swimming tomorrow unless it s cold. (b) Ill go swimming tomorrow if it isnt cold. Unless : if..... Not In (a): Unless it s cold = if it isnt cold (a) And (b) have the same meaning.

Adverb Clauses of Conditions: Using Only If and Providing/Provided That

a) The picnic will be cancelled only if it rains. Only if expresses the idea that there is only one condition that will cause a particular result.

b) Only if it rains will the picnic be cancelled.

When only if begins a sentence, the subject and verb of the main clause are inverted.

c) Providing/provided (that) no Providing that and provided that = one has any further questions, if or only if the meeting will be adjourned.

a) While we were watching tv, we ate After you arrived at home, you had to close the window. popcorn.
Adverb Clause

b) While watching tv, we ate popcorn.

After arriving at home, you had to close the window

Modifying Phrase

Change possible only when the subject of the adverb clause and the subject of the main clause are the same

While Ita explaining about adveb clause, Annisa cried out loud

While Nadila was sitting in MBRC, she read a book. (clause)

While sitting in MBRC, Nadila read a book.


Changing Time Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases

Adverb a) Since clauses Mila came beginning to this with class, after, she before, has made while, many and since friends. can be changed. b) Since coming to this class, Mila has made many friends.

There is no difference in her c) Before she (had) cooked meaning between Before she dinner, Anen boiled the water. cooked and Before she had cooked. d) Before cooking her between dinner, There is no difference Anen boiled the water. Before cooking and Before having cooked e) Before having cooked her dinner, Anen boiled the water The modifying f) Ega swam in adverbial the ocean after pharese follow the main meeting may his girlfriend. clause.

Expressing Cause and Effect in Modifying Adverbial Phrases

Often an ing phrase at some the a) Because he needed beginning a sentence advice,of Ega talked to gives the Anen meaning of because. seriously. Because is not included in a b) Needing some advice, modifying phrase. It is Ega talked to Anen omitted, but the resulting seriously. phrase expresses a causeand-effect relationship. c) Having gone to the cinema, Having + past participle give I don t want to watch the meaning not onlyalone of again. because but also of before. d) Having gone to the cinema, I didnt want to watch alone.

e) Bacause she was able to dance, she hired as a dancer.

A form of be in the adverb clause maybe changed to being. The use of f) Being able to dance, she hired as a being makes the cause-and-effect relationship clear. dancer.

g) Abe to dance, she hired as a dancer.

Using Upon +ing in Modifying Adverbial Phrases

a) Upon reaching the age of 19, Annisa received my present. b) When Annisa reached the age of 19, Annisa received my present. c) On reaching the age of 19, Annisa Upon = On received my present.
Modifying adverbial phrases beginning with upon +ing usually have the same meaning as adverb clauses introduced by when.

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