Anda di halaman 1dari 34

VEHICLE SAFETY EVALUATION CERTIFICATION FOR CRASH WORTHINESS BY K.

SUGANESWARAN

In 2008, seat belts saved more than 13,000 lives nationwide. From 2004 to 2008, seat belts saved over 75,000 lives enough people to fill a large sports arena. During a crash, being buckled up helps keep you safe and secure inside

your vehicle, whereas being completely thrown out of a vehicle is almost


always deadly. Seat belts are the best defense against impaired, aggressive, and distracted drivers.

In fact, if you dont wear your seat belt, you could be thrown into a rapidly opening frontal air bag; a movement of such force could injure or even kill you.

Follow the guidelines shown in the photo right. As you can see, the lap belt and shoulder belt are secured across the pelvis and rib cage, which are more able to withstand crash forces than other parts of your body.

Fit matters
Before you buy a new car, check to see that its seat belts are a good fit for you. Ask your dealer about seat belt adjusters, which can help you get the best fit. If you need a roomier belt, contact your vehicle manufacturer to obtain seat belt extenders. If you drive an older or classic car with lap belts only, check with your vehicle manufacturer about how to retrofit your car with todays safer lap/shoulder belts.

Passenger cars need to meet over 40 safety standards (whereas LCVs are required to meet only 4 standards). These design and performance standards include occupant protection during frontal, side, and rear collisions. As a result, mainstream cars are required to be designed far more robustly than LCVs, and this reduces the risk of injury or death to occupants. However, the level of risk depends on the severity of a crash and the design and extent of protection offered by individual models. The risk is therefore reduced but cannot be eliminated. In rear impact collisions, the head restraints, seat back, seat belts, and seat anchorages work together to protect the occupants. In side impact collisions, if the vehicle is equipped with side curtain air bags, this would reduce the risk of the occupant's head being struck directly by an intruding vehicle.

Crashworthiness
The ability of vehicle structure to absorb mechanical energy resulting from collision with another object while maintaining integrity of passenger compartment.

Crush
The amount of exterior deformation of car involved in a crash.

Intrusion
The reduction in an interior dimension due to door footwear or bulkhead intrusion.

Biomechanics
The study of the mechanics of living things. It demands knowledge both of Biology and of the various branches of Physics & Engineering which comprise mechanics.

The structural zone would sacrificially collapse during frontal impact to help protect the structural integrity of the passenger compartment while limiting the deceleration that the occupant would experience.

The following Federal Motor Vehicle Standards are related to safety testing. Interior Testing FMVSS 201 -Occupant Protection in Interior Impact FMVSS 202 -Head Restraints FMVSS 203 -Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering Control System FMVSS 204 -Steering Control Rearward Displacement FMVSS 205 -Glazing Materials FMVSS 207 -Seating Systems FMVSS 213 -Child Restraint Systems FMVSS 225 -Child Restraint Anchorage Systems Dash Board FMVSS 201 -Occupant Protection in Interior Impact

Frontal Impact

Side Impact

FMVSS 203 -Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering Control System FMVSS 204 -Steering Control Rearward Displacement FMVSS 205 -Glazing Materials FMVSS 208 -Occupant Crash Protection FMVSS 209 -Seat Belt Assemblies FMVSS 210 -Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages FMVSS 212 -Windshield Mounting

FMVSS 201 -Occupant Protection in Interior Impact FMVSS 205 -Glazing Materials FMVSS 206 -Door Locks and Door Retention Components FMVSS 214 -Side Impact Protection Steering Wheel FMVSS 203 -Impact Protection for the Driver from the Steering Control System FMVSS 204 -Steering Control Rearward Displacement

Seats FMVSS 201 -Occupant Protection in Interior Impact FMVSS 207 -Seating Systems Seat Belts FMVSS 208 -Occupant Crash Protection FMVSS 209 -Seat Belt Assemblies FMVSS 210 -Seat Beld Assembly Anchorages FMVSS 213 -Child Restraint Systems Rear Impact

FMVSS 223 -Rear Impact Guards FMVSS 224 -Rear Impact Protection

Rollover

FMVSS 201 -Occupant Protection in Interior Impact FMVSS 208 -Occupant Crash Protection FMVSS 216 -Roof Crush Resistance

Head Rests
FMVSS 202 -Head Restraints

Roof Crush
FMVSS 216 -Roof Crush Resistance

Interior Testing (ECE R-12) Reg. 12 -Rev.3 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE PROTECTION OF THE DRIVER AGAINST THE STEERING MECHANISM IN THE EVENT OF IMPACT ECE R-16 Reg. 16 -Rev.5 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF: I. SAFETY-BELTS, RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS AND ISOFIX CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS FOR OCCUPANTS OF POWER-DRIVEN VEHICLES II. VEHICLES EQUIPPED WITH SAFETY-BELTS, RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS AND ISOFIX CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS

ECE R-17 Reg. 17 -Rev.4 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE SEATS, THEIR ANCHORAGES AND ANY HEAD RESTRAINTS ECE R-44 Reg. 44 -Rev.1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF RESTRAINING DEVICES FOR CHILD OCCUPANTS OF POWERDRIVEN VEHICLES ("CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM")

ECER-21 Reg. 21 -Rev.2 Part 1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR INTERIOR FITTINGS Reg. 21 -Rev.2 Part 2 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR INTERIOR FITTINGS ECE R 32 Reg. 32 -Rev.1 Part 1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE IMPACTED VEHICLE IN A REAR-END COLLISION

Reg. 33 -Rev.1 Part 1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE IMPACTED VEHICLE IN A HEAD-ON COLLISION Reg. 33 -Rev.1 Part 2 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE IMPACTED VEHICLE IN A HEAD-ON COLLISION

ECE R-12 Reg. 12 -Rev.3 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE PROTECTION OF THE DRIVER AGAINST THE STEERING MECHANISM IN THE EVENT OF IMPACT ECE R-14 Reg. 14 -Rev.3 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITHREGARD TO SAFETY-BELT ANCHORAGES ECE R 94 Reg. 94 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE PROTECTION OF THE OCCUPANTS IN THE EVENT OF A FRONTAL COLLISION

ECE R 11 Reg. 11 -Rev.1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO DOOR LATCHES AND DOOR RETENTION COMPONENTS ECE R 95 Reg. 95 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE PROTECTION OF THE OCCUPANTS IN THE EVENT OF A LATERAL COLLISION ECE R-44 Reg. 44 -Rev.1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF RESTRAINING DEVICES FOR CHILD OCCUPANTS OF POWERDRIVEN VEHICLES ("CHILD RESTRAINT SYSTEM")

ECE R-42 Reg. 42 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR FRONT AND REAR PROTECTIVE DEVICES (BUMPERS, ETC.) Rollover ECE R-21 Reg. 21 -Rev.2 Part 1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR INTERIOR FITTINGS Reg. 21 -Rev.2 Part 2 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THEIR INTERIOR FITTINGS

Head Rests ECE R-25 Reg. 25 -Rev.1 -UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF HEAD RESTRAINTS (HEADRESTS), WHETHER OR NOT INCORPORATED IN VEHICLE SEATS

S.NO 1.

STANDARD AIS-005 (ECE R-16)

DESCRIPTION Safety Belt Assemblies

FACILITIES

2.

AIS-015 (ECE R-14 )

Safety Belt Anchorages

S.NO

STANDARDS DESCRIPTION

FACILITIES AVAILABLE

3.

AIS-016 (ECE R-17)

Seats, Their Anchorages and Head Restraints

4.

AIS-023 (ECE R-80)

Seat their anchorages and head restraints for passenger vehicles of the categories other than M1 and Goods vehicles of category N

S.NO STANDARDS 5. IS:11939 (ECE R-12)

DESCRIPTION Evaluation of Steering Column Displacement against Front Collision

FACILITIES AVAILABLE

6.

IS:15223 (ECE R-21)

Interior Fittings

S.NO STANDARDS 7.
IS: 12009

DESCRIPTION
Side Door Strength for Passenger Cars

FACILITIES

8.

IS:14812, IS:14682 (ECE R-58)

Rear and Lateral Under Run Protection Devices

S.NO
1.

STANDARDS
AIS-029 ECE R-29

DESCRIPTION
Survival Space of the occupants of Commercial Vehicle

FACILITIES AVAILABLE

2.

AIS-031 ECE R-66

Strength of Super Structure

S.NO 3.

STANDRDS
AIS-006 ECE R-42

DESCRIPTION
Front and Rear Bumpers

FEATURES AVAILABLE

4.

ECE R-93 AIS-069

Front Under Run Protection

S.NO 1.

STANDARDS

DESCRIPTION

ECE R-94 AIS-098

Protection of occupant in the event of frontal collision (Offset frontal)

2.

ECE R-95 AIS-099

Protection of occupant in the event of Lateral Collision

3.

ECE R-32 AIS-096

Requirements of vehicle in head-on collision

4.

ECE R-33 AIS-101

Rear End Collision

S.NO
5.

STANDARDS
ECE R-44 AIS-072

DESCRIPTION
Child Restraint System

6.

EEVC WG17 AIS-100

Pedestrian Protection

7.

AIS-052 ECE R-107

Bus Body Code: Large Passenger Vehicles General Construction