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Urbanizao, Poltica e Cidadania

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

Instituto de Geocincias Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Dezembro de 2012

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

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I The use value of land II Landed property III The forms of rent IV The contradictory role of ground rent and landed property within the capitalist mode of production V Distribution relations and class struggle between landlord and capitalist VI The land market and fictious capital.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

The theory of rent


Rent, in the final analysis, is simply a payment made to landlords for the right to use land and its appurtenances (the resources embedded within it, the buildings placed upon it and so on). The land, conceived of in this very broad sense, evidently has both use value and exchange value. Can it also, then, have a value? If so, how can the existence of that value be reconciled with theories of value that rest on embodied labour time (such as Ricardo's) or, in Marx's case, on socially necessary labour time? (HARVEY, 1982, p. 330).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

The theory of rent


Valor no brota da terra.
A renda da terra se insere no circuito da distribuio de mais-valia, embora possua funes de co-ordenao na sua produo. Um mundo de aparncias esconde a natureza da renda da terra e dificulta respostas sobre sua funo no sistema capitalista.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

I The use value of land


O que nos interessa so os valores de uso relacionados ao modo capitalista de produo. A terra pode ser alienada e transformada em mercadoria.

Certos valores de uso da terra so reproduzveis outros no (distino entre valores de uso naturais e valores de uso fruto da ao humana).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

I The use value of land


a) The land as the basis of reproduction and extraction A renda da terra no a remunerao de um meio de produo no-produzido. Somente o capital controla a produo do valor. Exemplo da queda dgua. A vantagem natural a base da gerao de lucro extraordinrio e no sua fonte.

On these grounds, Marx disputes Ricardo's view that rent is a payment for the 'original and indestructible powers of the soil', because these powers are as much the product of history as they are of nature. (HARVEY, 1982, p.337).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

I The use value of land


b) Space, place and location Outra fonte de renda da terra a localizaao, uma vez que todas atividades humanas demandam espao e podem requerer localizaes especficas. Importncia para realizaao do valor no mercado.

In the final analysis, however, the use value of a particular location can not be understood independently of the variegated needs of a whole host of activities [] (HARVEY, 1982, p.340).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

I The use value of land


c) Location, fertility and price production Esses dois usos da terra podem ter pesos variados para diferentes atividades produtivas. Marx, de uma maneira geral, abstrai a questo locacional e trabalha somente com a fertilidade da terra postulando que o preo de mercado o preo de produo na pior terra mais o lucro normal.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

II Landed property
Cada momento histrico tem uma forma de propriedade da terra e a histria do capitalismo se confunde com a alterao dessas relaes em prol da acumulao. The hallmark of landed property under capitalism, Marx argues, is such a thorough dissolution of 'the connection between landownership and the land' that the landlord, in return for a straight monetary payment, confers all rights to the land as both instrument and condition of production upon capital. (HARVEY, 1982, p.343).

Tendncia: tratar a terra puramente enquanto ativo financeiro.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

III The forms of rent


a) Monopoly rent Toda renda se baseia em um certo tipo de monoplio da terra, mas a renda monopolstica surge em condies nocompetitivas. A terra enquanto obra de arte A terra enquanto artigo raro A renda absoluta possui base em certo tipo de renda monopolstica.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

III The forms of rent


b) Absolute rent Fruto de um obstculo aliengena produo (posse da terra) coloca ao capitalista e livre circulao do capital. Fruto de um poder circunstancial que os proprietrios de terra tem de manter uma baixa participao do capital na produo agrcola. Depende da realizao do preo de mercado e, portanto, tende a ser reduzida.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

III The forms of rent


b) Differencial rent DR -1 is easy to interpret given such simplifying assumptions. It reflects the material conditions that make fertility differentials permanent features to production. Landed property, which appropriates the DR-I, assumes a neutral position with respect to the determination of market value and cantherefore be exonerated from all blame for lagging accumulation or any other social ills. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 354).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

III The forms of rent


b) Differencial rent A renda diferencial 2 (RD-2) pode ser facilmente apreendida atravs de um ceteris paribus, mas o importante a relao entre RD-1 e RD-2. RD-2 possui um carter transitrio, se confunde com e altera a dinmica da RD-1 atravs do nvel normal de aplicao de capital. Elas no necessariamente se somam (impossibilidade de separao) e assumem um carter no-neutro em relao ao valor de mercado.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The contradictory role of ground rent


Landed property has nothing to do with the actual process of production. Its role is confined to transferring a portion of the produced surplus value from the pockets of capital to its own. However, the landlord plays a role in the capitalist process. of production not merely through the pre sure he exerts upon capital, nor merely because large landed property is a prerequisite and condition of capitalist production since it is a prerequisite and condition of the expropriation of the labourer from the means of production, but particularly because he appears as the personification of one of the most essential conditions of production. (Capital, vol. 3, p. 821) (HARVEY, 1982, p.359).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The contradictory role of ground rent


a) The separation of the labourer from the land as means of production The barrier that landed property places between labour and the land is socially necessary to the perpetuation of capitalism. But in creating landed property as a barrier to labour, capital also creates barriers to itself. In making the reproduction of wage labour possible, the appropriation of rent also becomes possible. (HARVEY, 1982, p.359-360).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The contradictory role of ground rent


b) Landownership and the principle of private property The preservation, and even the enhancement, of private property in land therefore performs an ideological and legitimizing function for all forms of private property; hence, some would argue, the importance of conferring privileges of home ownership (possession of a means of consumption) upon the working class. From this standpoint, we can regard rent as a side-payment allowed to landowners in order to preserve the sanctity and inviolability of private property in general. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 360).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The contradictory role of ground rent


c) Landed property and capital flow Apesar das formas como a renda monopolstica e a renda absoluta constituirem entraves aos fluxos de capital a renda da terra pode ter efeitos positivos (disciplinadores) sobre a acumulao capitalista de modo a co-orientar decises espaciais da produo, de investimento e ajuda a manter o ambiente de competio e acumulao. As dificuldades surgem porque os donos de terra podem extrapolar seu campo de ao (RD-1 e RD-2) e inserir conflitos no campo distributivo.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV Distribution relation and class struggle


O padro de distribuio da mais-valia global fruto de uma luta de classe, na qual os proprietrios de terra se inserem em sua busca por rendas. Diferentes oposies de classe geram diferentes nveis de explorao, de renda e de exerccio de poder (conflitos com componeses vs. conflitos em contratos). A utilizao das renda tambm constitui um ponto de anlise importante.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV Distribution relation and class struggle


The landed interest lost its autonomous and independent role and was necessarily transformed into a faction of capital itself. [] the share of rent in total surplus value produced is less and less the product of overt class conflict between two quasi-independent social classes and more and more internalized within the logic that fixes the circulation of interest-bearing capital among the various forms of fictitious capital that arise within the capitalist mode of production. Which brings us more directly to how and why interest-bearing capital comes to circulate through land itself. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 366)

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The land market and fictious capital


Ground-rent, capitalized as the interest on some imaginary capital, constitutes the 'value' of the land. What is bought and sold is not the land, but title to the ground-rent yielded by it. The money laid out is equivalent to an interest-bearing investment. The buyer acquires a claim upon anticipated future revenues, a claim upon the future fruits of labour. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 367). The basic forces regulating the price of land and its appurtenances are the rate of interest and anticipated future rental revenues. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 367).

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The land market and fictious capital


By actively pursuing the appropriation of values, landholders can force production on the land into new configurations and even push surplus value production on a scale and with an intensity that might not otherwise occur. In so doing, of course, they condemn future labour to ever-increasing levels of exploitation in the name of the land itself. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 368). Os proprietrios de terra sinalizam rendas futuras e orientam a produo do espao para os fins da acumulao, pois dependem de sua realizao para auferir renda.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The land market and fictious capital


By actively pursuing the appropriation of values, landholders can force production on the land into new configurations and even push surplus value production on a scale and with an intensity that might not otherwise occur. In so doing, of course, they condemn future labour to ever-increasing levels of exploitation in the name of the land itself. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 368). Os proprietrios de terra sinalizam rendas futuras e orientam a produo do espao para os fins da acumulao, pois dependem de sua realizao para auferir renda.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The land market and fictious capital


Por outro lado, as aes individuais de um proprietrio de terra afetam no somente todo o mercado de terras como tambm compromete a fora de trabalho futura. Como evitar um frisson espectulativo e suas consequncias destrutivas? Monoplio e propriedade estatal poderiam ser solues, mas possuem suas prprias contradies.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The land market and fictious capital


Capitalism cannot do without land price and land markets as basic co-ordinating devices in the allocation of land to uses. It can merely strive to constrain their operation so as to make them less incoherent and less vulnerable to speculative disorders. Two implications then derive from this general conclusion. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 371). 1. Terra dever ser um ativo financeiro e aberta a circulao de capital, deve cumprir seu papel de capital fictcio. 2. O mercado de terras afeta tanto a produo como a fora de trabalho.

The limits of Capital David Harvey Chapter 11 The theory of rent

IV The land market and fictious capital


The fact that it sometimes forces too hard or in erroneous directions simply establishes that the land market necessarily internalizes all the fundamental underlying contradictions of the capitalist mode of production. It thereby imposes those contradictions upon the very physical landscape of capitalism itself. Yet it is, at the same time, a vital co-ordinating device in the struggle to organize the use of land in ways that contribute to the production of surplus value and the structuring of capitalist social formations in general. (HARVEY, 1982, p. 372).