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Chapter 9 Urinary System

Lesson 1

What are the major organs of the Urinary System


kidneys urethra ureters urinary bladder

Review: Structure of the kidneys


On coronal section: Nephron Renal Renal tubules (portion) cortex kidney
Renal medulla Renal corpuscle

Glomerular sac
Glomerulus

Base of the renal pyramids/columns Renal pyramids (15-20) Renal papilla (7-12) Papillary foramina Minor renal calices (7-8) Major renal calices (2-3) Renal pelvis

Review: Functions of the kidneys


Remove waste products of metabolism Responsible for homeostasis (), adjust the balance of water and chemical in the body. Regulate the level of electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate. Maintain the correct pH range within the body Control red blood cell production by secreting the hormone erythropoietin () Maintain normal blood pressure by secreting the enzyme renin ().

glomerular capsule (Bowmans capsule)


renal corpuscle

glomerulus

nephron

renal tubule

afferent arteriole

efferent arteriole

Urine Production
Stage
Stage 1 filtration

site
Renal corpuscle

process
Material is forced by blood pressure through the glomerular walls of Bowmans capsule into the renal tubules. Water and much of the electrolytes and nutrients are reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries and reenter circulating blood. Special cells of the renal tubules secrete ammonia, uric acid, and other waste substances into the renal tubule.

Stage 2 Four sections of reabsorption the renal tubules

Stage 3 secretion

Collecting tubules---renal papilla---calyx----- renal pelvis

Ureters
Two muscular tubes which convey the urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder. Each measures 20-30cm in length, 0.5-0.7cm in diameter. According to the course, each ureter can be divided into 3 parts: Abdominal part Pelvic part Intramural part

Abdominal part

Pelvic part

Intramural part

Urinary bladder
Hollow, muscular organ which stores urine.

Located in the pelvic cavity, posterior to the pubic symphysis, and below the parietal peritoneum.
The size, shape, position and volume varies.

an interperitoneal organ, only the superior surface and upper portion of the inferolateral surface are covered by peritoneum.

three layers of the urinary bladder


The inner lining of the urinary bladder is a mucous membrane of transitional epithelium. When the bladder is empty, the mucosa has numerous folds called rugae. The rugae and transitional epithelium allow the bladder to expand as it fills. The second layer in the walls is the submucosa that supports the mucous membrane. It is composed of connective tissue with elastic fibers. The next layer is the muscularis, which is composed of smooth muscle. The smooth muscle fibers are interwoven in all directions and collectively these are called the detrusor muscle (). Contraction of this muscle expels urine from the bladder.

Trigone
There is a triangular area, called the trigone (), formed by three openings in the floor of the urinary bladder. Two of the openings are from the ureters and form the base of the trigone. Small flaps of mucosa cover these openings and act as valves that allow urine to enter the bladder but prevent it from backing up from the bladder into the ureters. The third opening, at the apex of the trigone, is the opening into the urethra. A band of the detrusor muscle encircles this opening to form the internal urethral sphincter.

urethra
Extends from the internal urethral orifice of the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice. Female urethra: a narrow membranous canal, about 5 cm long, 0.6 cm in diameter. Male urethra: serves a common tube for urinary and genital systems. The urethra's wall is lined with a mucous membrane, it also has a relatively thick layer of smooth muscle tissue. Urethral glands are dispersed throughout the urethra, which secrete mucous into the urethral canal.

Female urethra is dorsal to the pubic symphysis and ventral to the anterior wall of the vagina. Its direction is obliquely downward and forward and slightly curved. Many small urethral glands open into the urethra. Largest glands are the paraurethral glands, the duct of which open into the vaginal vestibule on either side of the external orifice of urethra.

Male urethra
Two functions: an outlet for urine and the passageway for semen, it serves a common tube for urinary and genital systems.

urine
Urine is normally straw colored to clear Composition: 95% water + dissolved substances (electrolytes, toxins, and nitrogenous wastes) Sometimes it also contains abnormal materials (glucose, blood, or albumin) Normally, during a 24-hour period the output of urine will be 1,000 to 2,000 ml, depending on the amount of fluid consumed and the general health of the person.

Healthy individuals excrete a small amount of protein, mostly albumin, in the urine. Protein content may increase if the kidney is damaged from an infection or inflammation. The color of urine is pale yellow due to the presence of the pigment urochrome(). Urine color varies from almost colorless to dark orange depending on the dilution and concentration of the urine.

The normal odor of urine comes from acid in the urine. In diabetics, urine may have a fruity odor due to the presence of excessive glucose.
Urine pH varies from 4.5 to 8.0, averaging 5.5 to 6.5. Determining the urine pH is important when treating patients for stone disease.

Contrast between normal and abnormal Urinalysis findings