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By Nur Adilah (USM)

Characteristic of Water

Physical

Chemical

Biological

Radiological

Water quality and characteristics are important to consider when choosing a water source. The quality of water is determined by the measuring the concentrations of impurities in it.

Chracteristics of Water
Temperature Colour Physical
Taste and odour

Turbidity

Temperature Colour Taste and Odour

Temperature will affects the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water. Oxygen is more easily dissolved in cold water. Oxygen levels become lower as temperature increase.
The colour of a water sample is caused by both dissolved and particulate material in water Colour occurs most frequently in surface water due to the decay of organic material Taste and odour are human perceptions to water quality. Such as, sour (hydrochloric acid),salt (sodium chloride), sweet (sucrose) and bitter (caffeine)
Turbidity is a measure of water clarity which is how much the material suspended in water decreases the passage of light through the water Blocks out the light needed by submerged aquatic vegetation Can affect the colour of the water

Turbidity

Chemical

DO BOD

pH

COD

DO
volume of oxygen that is contained in water.

BOD
amount of oxygen consumed by bacteria in the decomposition of organic material

COD
is used as a measure of the oxygen equivalent of the organic matter content of a sample that is susceptible to oxidation by a strong chemical oxidant

pH

The amount of DO in water is expressed as a concentration.

Determine : measuring the dissolved oxygen level in a freshly collected sample and comparing it to the dissolved oxygen level in a sample

Water (H2O) contains both hydrogen (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ions.

Oxidation of most organic compounds is 95 to 100% expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L),

A concentration is the amount in weight of a particular substance per a given volume of liquid.

includes the oxygen required for the oxidation of various chemical in the water, such as sulfides, ferrous iron and ammonia

pH 7 = neutral pH <7 = acidic pH >7 = alkaline.

The National Water Quality Standards, which is applied to surface waters, ordains standard values of 72 parameters in 6 water use classes. The goal is not to meet the standards of the certain water class in all surface waters, but to improve water quality gradually in order to meet the standards of the better water class than the actual.

Index/SubIndex
WQI

Polluted

Index Value Slightly. Polluted


60-80

Clean

0-59

81-100

BOD

0-79

80-90

91-100

NH3N

0-70

71-91

92-100

SS

0-69

70-75

76-100

Class

Uses

CLASS I

Conservation of natural environment water supply 1 - practically no treatment necessary. Fishery 1 - very sensitive aquatic species
Water Supply II - conventional treatment required Fishery ll - sensitive aquatic species Recreational use with body contact Water Supply lll - extensive treatment required Fishery lll - common, of economic value, and tolerant species livestock drinking Irrigation None of the above

CLASS IIA CLASS IIB CLASS III

CLASS IV CLASS V

Class Parameter BOD COD NH3N DO pH SS

I <1 <10 <0.1 >7 >7 <25

II 1-3 10-25 0.1-0.3 5-7 6-7 25-50

III 3-6 25-50 0.3-0.9 3-5 5-6 50-150

IV 6-12 50-100 0.9-2.7 1-3 <5 150-300

V >12 >100 >2.7 <1 >5 >300

WQI

>92.7

76.5-92.7

51.9-76.5

31.0-51.9

<31.0

Marine Water Water Quality Standards for Marine Water


The Marine Water Quality Standards, which ordains standards

values of 9 parameters, is in review now. The Standards is reviewed so as to cover other parameters and reexamine the standard values which is not practically possible to comply.

Surface Water Water Quality Standards for Groundwater


The Ground Water Quality Standards for Malaysia is still not

established, but considering potential of groundwater as an alternative source for surface water, DOE had started the National Groundwater Monitoring Program to determine the groundwater quality status. Since the standards is still not established, the groundwater quality status was determined based on the National Guidelines for Raw Water Quality as the benchmark.

Physical Characteristics Temperature = average value of 29.5C and it range from 26.6 to 31.3C Turbidity = range from 0.91 to 44.70 NTU and average of 9.15 NTU Conductivity = average value of 24.38 S/cm, ranging from 10.85 to 54.83 S/ cm Chemical Characteristics pH = average value of 6.20 and it range from 5.05 to 7.14. DO = range from 4.56 to 6.93 mg/L and average of 5.95mg/L. BOD = average value 1.60 mg/L, range from 0.80 to 2.34mg/L TTS = average value of 7.87 mg/L, range from 0.85 to 37.75mg/L. COD = average value of 14.37 mg/L, range from 10.12 to 18.66mg/L

In Malaysia, environmental acts and regulations were established in 1970's. "Environmental Quality Act 1974" is an act related to the prevention, abatement, control of pollution and enhancement of the environment. Under this act, the Minister after consultation with the Environmental Quality Council elaborates regulations for prescribing ambient water quality standards which are applied to surface waters and marine waters. "The Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations 1979" was also established under the act to prescribe discharge standards.