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Digital Communication Fundamentals

Dr. M.Meenakshi Department of ECE College of Engineering, Guindy

Analog versus Digital


Original pulse Regenerated pulse

Propagation distance

Data

Voice Media

A bit is a bit!

Performance Metrics
In Analog communications we want,

(t ) m(t ) m

In Digital communication systems,


Data rate (R bps) Limited by Channel Capacity Probability of error (BER)

Digital communication system


Analog
Input Signal Analog/ Digital Low Pass Filter Sampler Quantizer Source Encoder

Digital
Channel Encoder Multiplexer

Carrier

Twisted Pair Co-axial Cable Optical Fiber Wireless Space

To Channel

Modulator

Pulse Shaping Filters

Line Encoder

From Channel

DeModulator
Carrier Recovery

Receiver Filter

Detector
Symbol timing Recovery

Signal at the user end

Digital-to-Analog Converter

Channel Decoder

DeMultiplexer

Analog

Digital

Analog to Digital Conversion


Analog
Low Pass Filter Source Encoder Digital Sampler

Quantizer

Sampling Process
xs (t ) x (t ) x(t )
x(t )
| X( f )|

X s ( f ) X ( f ) X ( f )

x (t )

| X ( f ) |

xs (t )
| Xs( f )|

Aliasing effect

LP filter

Nyquist rate

Aliasing effect

aliasing

Aliasing effect

Quantization
Amplitude quantizing: Mapping samples of a continuous amplitude waveform to a finite set of amplitudes.

Quantized values

Quantization
Average quantization noise power
Signal peak power

Signal power to average quantization noise power

Quantization example
amplitude x(t) 111 3.1867 110 101 100 2.2762 1.3657 0.4552

011 -0.4552 010 -1.3657 001 -2.2762 000 -3.1867


110 110 111 110 100 010 011 100 100 011

Non-uniform quantization
compression+expansion
y C ( x)

companding
x

x(t )

y (t )

(t ) y
y
Quantize Expand

(t ) x

x
Compress

Transmitter

Channel

Receiver

Source Coding
Pulse Code Modulation Delta Modulation Eliminate redundancy Lossless coding
Huffman Coding,Shannon-Fano Coding, etc.

Lossy compression coding


LPC, JPEG, MPEG, etc.

Source Coding
Redundancy elimination maximizes information rate in a transmission

What is Information Rate ? Entropy Average Information per bit

Baseband Signal Processing


Channel Encoder

Multiplexer

Digital
Pulse Shaping Filters

Line Encoder

Channel Coding
(Error Control Coding)

To reduce the impact of channel errors by controlled introduction of redundancy Decrease in effective data rate Increased coding gain

Channel Coding
(Error Control Coding)

Forward Error Correcting Codes


Linear Block Codes Convolutional Codes Turbo Codes

Feedback based Error Correcting Codes


ARQ methods: Stop and wait, Go-back N, Selective repeat

Multiplexing

Line Coding Formats


Converting Data into time varying Signals Must consume least bandwidth Reduce dc content Clock extraction for symbol timing Error correction capability if possible

Line Coding Formats


(Converting Data into Signals)

Numerous techniques
NRZ-L NRZ-I Manchester Differential Manchester Bipolar AMI

Line Coding Formats

Line Coding Formats


0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1

Line Coding Formats

Pulse Shaping Filters


Time Domain <= => Frequency Domain Bandlimiting signals in frequency domain spreads signal in time domain

Inter-Symbol Interference ISI

Inter Symbol Interference


Time Domain Frequency Domain

T1

T2

f1

f2

T1

T2

t f

Nyquist Criterion
Time Domain Frequency Domain

T1

T2

f1

f2

T1

T2

t f

Application of Nyquist Criterion


Time Domain At 4th bit interval Bit 1

Bit 0

2T

3T

4T

5T

6T

7T

Application of Nyquist Criterion


Time Domain
1 1 1 1 0 -1 1 1 0 -1 0 -1 1 1 0 -1

t 0 T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T

Pulse Shaping Filters


Nyquist Criterian to overcome ISI Pulse Shaping Filters Raised Cosine Filters Gaussian shaping filters

Baseband RC Filter
=0 = 0.5 =1

hRC(t) 1/Ts

-4T -3T -2T -T 0 T 2T 3T 4T

Baseband Gaussian Filter


hG(t)
= 0.5 = 0.75 = 1.0 = 2.0

3Ts Ts 2 2

Ts 2

3Ts 2

Bandpass Processing
Carrier Modulator

To Channel

Modulation is the process of encoding information from a message source in a manner suitable for transmission through the channel.

Passband Modulation
Analog
AM Amplitude Modulation FM Frequency Modulation PM Phase Modulation

Digital
ASK Amplitude Shift Keying FSK Frequency Shift Keying PSK Phase Shift Keying

ASK, FSK, PSK

Bandpass Signal Reception


Analog Analog Digital

DeReceiver Modulator Filter Carrier Ref. Carrier Recovery

Detector Timing Ref.

Symbol Timing Recovery

Signal Decoding and Reception


Digital DeMultiplexer Channel Decoder Analog Digital-to-Analog Converter

Signal at the user end

Goal of Advanced Modulation & Coding Techniques


Modulation / coding is difficult task in hostile channels like the mobile radio channels
Small-scale fading and multipath conditions.

The goal of a modulation / coding scheme is:


To transport the message signal through the radio channel with best possible quality. To occupy least amount of (eg. radio ,RF) spectrum.

Multipath Propagation
LOS pulses multipath pulses

signal at Tx

power

signal at receiver long term fading

short term fading t

Digital communication system


Analog
Input Signal Analog/ Digital Low Pass Filter Sampler Quantizer Source Encoder

Digital
Channel Encoder Multiplexer

Carrier

Twisted Pair Co-axial Cable Optical Fiber Wireless Space

To Channel

Modulator

Pulse Shaping Filters

Line Encoder

From Channel

DeModulator
Carrier Recovery

Receiver Filter

Detector
Symbol timing Recovery

Signal at the user end

Digital-to-Analog Converter

Channel Decoder

DeMultiplexer

Analog

Digital

Digital Communication Techniques


Line coding, pulse shaping techniques Carrier and Symbol timing estimation Information theory, Source coding Channel coding techniques Advanced coding / modulation techniques

Thank You
meena68@annauniv.edu