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Laterally Restrained Beams

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Prof. Hardy Cross


.the structural elements are very faithful. They would do what you expect them to do ..But then you have to asses whether they would be able to do that.

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Conditions to Qualify as a Laterally Restrained Beam


It should not laterally buckle None of its elements should buckle until a desired limit state is achieved Limit state of serviceability must be satisfied Member should behave in accordance with the expected performance of the system

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Laterally Stability of Beams

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Local Buckling In IS:800 (1984) the local buckling is avoided by specifying b/t limits. Hence we dont consider local buckling explicitly

However in IS:800(2000??) limit state design, the local buckling would be the first aspect as far as the beam design is concerned
How do we consider? By using section classification

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

K=0.425

K=4.0 8 times Stronger!

Mr.Stiffened

Mr.Unstiffened

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Vent

Local buckling

Vent

Full Section Capacity

Full section capacity eroded by local Buckling


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Unsitffened Elements
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Sitffened Elements
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Definition of Yield and Plastic Moment Capacities


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MP
My

MP

SEMI-COMPACT PLASTIC

MP

MP

My

COMPACT

SLENDER

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MP

MP

MP

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Section Classification as per BS:5950 Part-5 No Slender sections are rolled

Share of plastic sections is large

Section classification prevents the inadvertent use of sections less than compact for plastic design

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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B b = B/2 d T Section type Slender Semi-compact Compact Plastic Flange criterion (b/T) >15.75 <15.75 <9.975 <8.92 Web criterion (d/t) >126 <126 102.9 <102.9 82.95 <82.95 t

250 fy

9.975 8.92

Sectional Classification for Indian Conditions

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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Rotational Capacity MP Compact Plastic moment


fy

MY
Moment M

fy

Semi-Compact
<fy

fy

Yield moment

Slender
fy

<fy

Curvature

Flexural member performance using section classification

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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plastic compact semicompac t


12

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PLASTIC COMPACT SEMICOMPACT

49 12 4

Section classification of Indian standard rolled I beams

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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Limit states for LR beams


Limit state of flexure Limit state of shear Limit state of bearing Limit state of serviceability

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Deflected shape

M Radius of curvature A (a) h N

z A

(b)

Curvature of bending

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f
fy Stress 1

Elastic range 2

Plastic range

3
Idealised stress strain curve

strain

Idealised elasto- plastic stress strain curve for the purpose of design

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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1<y f1<fy

2=y

f2=fy

Strain and stress distributions in the elastic range

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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3>y f3<fy

f3=fy

B T fy t
d0

zc

3 zT

d0

Strain

Stress

4>>y

f4=fy
AC

Zc ZT

A
T

Strain

Stress

Strain and stress distributions in plastic range


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1 M 3 My MP 1

<fy fy

(a) BM diagram 4

fy
fy
(b) Plastification of cross section 1 2

Curvature max at collapse

(c) Curvature Diagram 23

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

Plastic Hinge Simply supported beam and its deflection at various stages

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MP

Moment M
MY

Plastic moment

Effect of strain hardening may occur after large rotation

Yield moment

Curvature Moment curvature characteristics of the simply supported beam

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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Mc f Z

My fy Z
M c f y ( BT d0 t )( zc zt ) f ytd 2 6

3 4

M p CZc TZt f y ( AcZc At Zt )

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2.0

1.7

1.5

1.27 Some typical shape factor1.14


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LIMIT STATE OF SHEAR

Elastic Shear stress

Elastic Bending stress

Plastic range

Combined bending and shear in beams

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EQUATIONS FOR SHEAR CAPACITY

V av t wd w
y
fy 3 0.58 f y

Vc 0.6 f ytwd w

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Shear yielding near support

Web buckling

Web crippling
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Pwb ( b1 n1 ) t f c
d/2

b1

n1 450

L 0.7 d E ry ry Iy t3 t A 12t 2 3

d/2

ry

LE 2 3 d 0.7 d 2.5 ry t t
Effective width for web buckling

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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P crip ( b1 n2 ) t f yw
b1 n2 1:2.5 slope

Effective width of web bearing

Root radius

Web Crippling in beams

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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LIMIT STATE OF SERVICEABILTY

Deflection (L/365 or L/200???)


Excessive vibration Repairable damage due to fatigue

L 24 2 x105 1 4923 d 5 0.6 f y 325 fy


Limiting L/d ratio

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Secondary effects on beam behaviour Residual Stresses Qualitative change in the behaviour Little more stringent b/t limits

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Elastic Shear stress

Elastic Bending stress

Plastic range

Secondary effects on beam behaviour Combined bending and shear in beams

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Mx y

Mx My

My

Unsymmetrical bending

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Behaviour of point symmetric sections


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Centroid

P
P P

Deflection of beams loaded through the centroid


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Shear centre P

Deflections of beams loaded through the shear canter

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Constrained bending

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d/2 x d/2

Interface shear x to be considered x here Plate area A (a) (b)

Rolled section Moment of inertia - Is Modulus of section - Zs

Example of built up beams

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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Load w/metre

Mc TheoreticalMc Point of cutoff Rolled beam

BM Diagram Cover plate

Actual cutoff

Curtailment of cover plate

Teaching Resource in Design of Steel Structures IIT Madras, SERC Madras, Anna Univ., INSDAG

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Thank You

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