Anda di halaman 1dari 24

7H Solutions

7H

Solutions
Mixtures and solutions

Separation techniques More about solutions


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Solutions

Mixtures and solutions

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Mixtures and solutions - Is it pure or is it a mixture?

A pure substance contains just one type of particle. A mixture contains at least two different types of particle.

A liquid can be pure or a mixture.


Which of these liquids is a mixture?

Its a trick question theyre all mixtures! Do you know why?


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Mixtures and solutions - Does the solid dissolve?

solid + liquid

mixture

Does the solid dissolve?


YES NO

solid no longer visible liquid may change colour


A solid that dissolves in water is soluble.

solid still visible liquid no colour change


A solid that does not dissolve in water is insoluble.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Mixtures and solutions - Whats the solution?

When a solid dissolves in a liquid it forms a special type of mixture called a solution.
Click on the beaker for some important solution words beginning with s! solute

solute and solvent solution solvent


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

solute - the substance being solvent - the can dissolved (a solution solution - formed when liquid/substance that have more than one solute the solvent and solute does the one dissolving but only solvent) mix together

7H Solutions

Separation techniques

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Filtration

Mixtures of liquids and solids can be separated by separation techniques. How would you separate pasta from the cooking water?
How are tea leaves kept out of a cup of tea?

How are coffee grains separated from a pot of fresh coffee?


Insoluble solids can be separated from a liquid by filtering.
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Worth your salt?

Did you know that salt is a surprisingly super-talented solid? See if youre worth your salt by deciding if the following statements are true or false.

2. 4. found naturally in every cell dissolved of in body. seawater. An The human total amount body 3. Spilling salt was considered unlucky. If youadult spill salt some 1. Salt 2. Salt is has is found been inused every as cell currency. of your your body. The saying An adult being human worth body your of contains salt dissolved about 70 in grams the worlds of salt. salt. oceans would cover the area to of people say you should throw some over your right shoulder salt contains comes about from 70 ancient grams Greece, of where slaves were traded in Britain to afor depth of 3 miles! cancel out the bad luck! exchange salt. FALSE! Salt is found in every cell of your body but an adult All human the salt contains in about oceans 250 would grams cover of salt! Britain to a FALSE! Spilling salt isthe unlucky but you should throw the salt TRUE! How much salt would you be worth? depth of 50 miles! over your left shoulder.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Salty seawater

You can think of the sea as a very big mixture. What kinds of solids are found in seawater?

Its easy to separate the insoluble solids like fish and boats.

Its more difficult to separate the soluble solids like salt. How could you separate the salt from a salty seawater solution?

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Evaporation

To separate dissolved solids from a solution, you need to remove the liquid.
Removing the liquid from a solution is called evaporation. The liquid can be evaporated using heat from the surroundings or by heating the solution directly.
before after evaporation evaporation

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Evaporation

In hot countries, special ponds are flooded with seawater and exposed to the heat of the sun. What happens to the water? The water evaporates and leaves the salt behind. Salt produced in this way is called solar salt.

Why isnt solar salt produced in the UK?

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Rock salt

Salt is also found as rock salt in layers below the ground.


Rock salt can be obtained by solution mining.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Chromatography

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques Distillation

How can you separate the solvent from the solids dissolved in a solution?

The best method to separate and collect the solvent from a solution is distillation.
Distillation involves three stages: boiling condensing collecting

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques Distillation

Where in the distillation equipment do boiling, condensing and collecting take place?
thermometer

boiling
flask with mixture

Liebig condenser gas cools and condenses water in

liquid boils off

water out

heat heat mat gas turned back to a liquid

one of liquids in mixture

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques Distillation

The most important piece of kit for distillation is the Liebig condenser.
2. Cold water in the outer tube cools the hot gas, which condenses to become a liquid.

1. Hot gas passes down the inner tube.

water in water out

3. The liquid is collected at the bottom.

Cold water enters the outer tube at the bottom and warm water leaves the outer tube at the top. Why does this happen?
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Summary

The choice of separation technique depends on two things:

1. Is the solid soluble or insoluble?

2. Do you want to collect the solid (solute) or the liquid (solvent) from the solution?

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Separation techniques - Summary

Match the correct description to the separation technique.


Name
1 Evaporation

Description
Ais used to separate small amounts of two or more solids which are soluble in the same solvent. Bis used to separate a soluble solid from the liquid to obtain the solute. Cis used to separate a soluble solid and a liquid to obtain the solvent.

2 Filtration 3 Chromatography 4 Distillation

Dis used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid.

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H Solutions

More about solutions

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H More about solutions - Conservation of mass

A spoonful of coffee powder is added to a beaker of water.

Mass of water = 100g

Mass of spoonful of coffee powder = 5g

Mass of coffee solution = 105g

Why is the mass of the coffee solution different to the mass of water?
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H More about solutions - Conservation of mass

A spoonful of sugar is added to a beaker of water.

+
Mass of water = 50g Mass of spoonful of sugar = 7g Mass of sugar solution = 57g

The water and the sugar solution are the same colour.
Why do they have different masses?
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H More about solutions - Particles in a solution

A solid does not disappear when it dissolves to form a solution. What happens to the particles?

solute

solvent

solution

In a solution, the particles from the solute are no longer closely packed together. They are evenly spread out between the particles of the solvent.
Why is dissolving is not the same as melting?

OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H More about solutions- Saturated solutions and solubility

How much sugar can you dissolve in a cup of tea?

If you keep adding sugar to a cup of tea you end up with a very sweet drink and a gloopy mess!

When a solid dissolves in a liquid to make a solution, eventually no more solid will dissolve. The solution is saturated.
OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college

7H More about solutions - Solubility and temperature

The total amount of a solid that can dissolve in a solution is called the solubility.
Temperature ( OC ) 0 10 20 30 40 Solubility of sugar per 100g of water 179.2 190.5 203.9 219.5 238.1

What happens to the solubility of sugar as the temperature increases?


OUP: To be used solely in purchasers school or college