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Introduction

Reaction of low molecular weight olefins with an isoparaffin to form higher molecular weight isoparaffins.

PROCESS VARIABLES

reaction temperature acid strength isobutane concentration olefin space velocity.

Alkylation Feedstock & Catalyst

Olefins and isobutene Some refineries include pentenes

Conc. H2SO4 and HF acids used commercially

ALKYLATION PRODUCTS

LPG grade propane liquid n-butane liquid C5- alkylate Tar

HYDROFLUORIC ACID PROCESSES

SULFURIC ACID ALKYLATION PROCESSES

Rotary Clinker Cooler


Period :- 1890 1930 Present Population Efficiency :- 5 % Capacity :- 2000 4500 TPD :- 50 60 % Specific Cooling Air :- 0.8 1.0 Nm3 / Kg Clinker Over all Heat Loss 140 Kcal / Kg Clinker Power Consumption :- 1- 1.5 Kwh / Ton Clinker
A Clinker exit 1200 - 1400 Max Heat Value 370 Kcal B Secondary Air 450 -700 o C Heat Value 233 Kcal B A C Clinker Exit 200 300 o C Heat Value 60 Kcal D Radiation Loss 80 Kcal

C D

Planetary Clinker Cooler


Period :- 1930 1980 Present Population Efficiency :- 10 % Capacity :- 2000 4000 TPD :- 60 68 % Specific Cooling Air :- 0.3 1.0 Nm3 / Kg Clinker Over all Heat Loss 140 Kcal / Kg Clinker Power Consumption :- 1- 1.5 Kwh / Ton Clinker

B Secondary Air 800 -850 o C Heat Value 270 Kcal B A A Clinker exit 1100 - 1350 Max Heat Value 370 Kcal

C Clinker Exit 150 200 o C Heat Value 60 Kcal C D Radiation Loss 70 Kcal D

Grate Cooler
Period :- 1940 Present Population :- 85 % Efficiency :- 60 75 % Capacity :- 700 10,000 TPD Over all Heat Loss Specific Cooling Air :- 1.6 2.6 Nm3 / Kg Clinker :- 115 Kcal / Kg Clinker Power Consumption :- 4.5 Kwh / Ton Clinker

A Clinker exit 1300 - 1400 Max Heat Value 370 Kca B Secondary Air 900 -1100 o C B A C Clinker Exit 70 120 o C Heat Value 20 Kcal D Vent air 250 280 o C Heat Value 90 Kcal

E Radiation Loss 5 Kcal

1st Generation Grate Cooler


Grate Inclination 10o
High Clinker Bed is not Possible 400 mm ht

Large Air chamber


Poor air distribution through grate

Un sealed air chamber because of in built drag chain


Not possible to distribute the air to required area

Platform or Water Cooled chute at inlet


Snowmen Formation and un uniform clinker distribution

Simple hole system in Grate plate


Enlarge due to wear and least resistance for air flow

Common air supply for all grate plate in each chamber


Poor air distribution according to clinker particle size

2nd Generation Grate Cooler


Grate Inclination 3-5 o
High Clinker Bed is not Possible 500 mm ht

Optimized air chamber length according to requirement


Slight improvement in air distribution through grate

Improved sealing by introduction of hopper and flap gate


Improvement in air distribution with different location

Dead grate and reduce the width at inlet


Improved the clinker distribution

Simple hole system in Grate plate


Enlarge due to wear and least resistance for air flow

Common air supply for all grate plate in each chamber


Poor air distribution according to clinker particle size

Wedge shape Hole is provided

Conventional Grate Plate

Hole enlarge by wear and air velocity reduce All Grate plates are connected in Common Air chamber leads to Uneven air flow based on resistance by clinker particles Chance of Hole plugging or Grate ridings

Air leakages through Side and in front of the plate


Pressure drop 25 to 50 mm WC

The Cooling air will always take the path of least resistance It makes uneven air distribution and causes formation of red river To Over come this the air should pass through a resistance before going to clinker bed

Importance of Grate Resistance

Resistance is the cumulative of pressure drop by


Clinker bed depth
Distribution of Coarse and fine particle

Pressure drop over the grate plate

To Increase the resistance, resistance type grate plate has Developed

Air Beam Technology


Fine Side Coarse side Resistance Grate Plate

Air Entry

Air Entry

Group of Grate plate is supported in a fixed or Movable air beam

Air is supplied to Grate plate through separate duct and air beam Air can be throttled by valve to individual group

IKN Jet Plate


IKN is only developed the term resistance grate first Longer air chamber, resulting high pressure drop S shape slot inclined towards the direction of transport

Cool the plates Surface and bottom layer of Clinker


Convey the fine fraction to top surface Re entrain the air for repeated contact to clinker

It has only 2-3 % open grate area compared to 8 to 12 % in conventional grate This pattern is followed for the entire cooler length

IKN Grate Plate


Hinge

Air Slot

Cooling Rib

Through Rod

Seal Grate Beam T-Bolt

Lock Stop Nut

Vorf = 40m/sec

V = 1 m/sec

Mulden & CFG Grate Plate


The air slots are provided by side ways to avoid dust fall through The Pocket or Trough are filled with static layer of clinker

Reduce the Surface wear


Give resistance to air flow Always keep the bottom surface Cool

Different pattern with same concept followed for direct aerated Grate and Chamber aerated Grate and Stationary Grate

KHD developed Stepped grate plate and Omega Grate plates


Polysius developed Jet - ring and Jet - Stream Grate plates

Mulden & CFG Grate Plate

FLS (CFG) Grate Plate

Cladius Peters Trough Grate Plate

Fixed Inlet Grate


The Worst affected area of cooler is inlet well below the kiln discharge Also High potential for gaining the heat from discharged clinker So all the supplier Develop a Fixed inlet Grate Clinker Inlet Distribution System (KIDS) - IKN

Controlled Impact System (CIS) - FLS -Fuller


High Efficiency Module (HEM) Claudius - Peters Air Beam technology and Resistance Grate plates are used High Bed and more heat recupation Protection of Grate plate from wear and temperature by Static Clinker bed

Fixed Inlet Grate


Objective of Fixed inlet grate is to create a homogeneous clinker bed of uniform resistance against the passage of air.
5 to 6 Rows of Fixed grates(3 meter) are fixed in a step manner and form a 15 Deg Slope Because of rigidity withstand high Impact and Temperature

Material Slide naturally or by Air blaster

Grate Loading
Grate Loading has increased by direct aeration system with Resistance type Grate plate

Conventional Cooler 25 40 T/m2 .d Modern Cooler 60 - 70 T/m2.d For 70 m2 Grate area


Capacity conventional Cooler 2800 - 3200 TPD Capacity Modern Cooler 4800 - 5200 TPD Conventional Cooler -Air density 0.90 Nm3/m2.Sec Modern Cooler Air loading 1.5 Nm3/m2.Sec

Air Loading per M2 grate area


Modern Cooler Occupies less space


Investment is same for per tone capacity

Cooler Bed Thickness


We can maintain high Bed Thickness by Direct aeration system with Resistance type Grate plate

Conventional Cooler 450-500 mm


Modern Cooler 700 - 800 mm Secondary air temperature

Conventional Cooler 800 o C Modern Cooler 1100 o C Conventional Cooler 100 kg/min/m2

Air loading at Cooler Inlet


Modern Cooler 200 Kg/min/m2


Conventional Cooler 400 500 mm WC

Air Pressure at Cooler Inlet


Modern Cooler 600 750 mm WC

Modern Cooler Fully Static Grate Plate


Requirement of New Development
high-performance compact in size Low-wear Flexible during operation Favorable price Easy to maintain To Achieve, 2 primary functions of cooler has Separated Cool the Clinker by Grate plate Convey the Clinker by travel bars
FLS Fuller - Cross Bar Cooler Krupp Polysius -Polytrack Cooler

Day to Day Inspection


On the outside , over the grate: Check for hot spots,which may indicate Lining failure on the mild-steel casing. Look for cracks at the seal welds.

Day to Day Inspection


Through inspection ports under the grate Check the grates. Look for flawed and loose grate parts,cover plates etc. Examine supporting . Check for any Spillage if a spillage is there, increase the air flow in that compartment

Day to Day Inspection


Through Inspection ports over the grate: Check the grates. Look for flawed and loose grate parts, cover plates etc. Inspect brickwork chain curtain and coarse grate. Check the sectors for seal at kiln shell.

Grate Inspection (During Shutdown)

Check the vertical distance between the grate elements. The distance must be 3mm +/- 2 mm. Check the gap between shoes and grate plates for air quenching .The gap must ne 3mm+/- 2 mm Check the support rollers at under compartment to prevent distortion of the drive arm Check the flexible joints.

Trouble Shooting Irregularity Grate Movement failure


Possible cause 1: Deformed or loose grate units or cover plates.
Remedy: Replacement or fixation of the parts.

Trouble Shooting Irregularity Grate Movement failure


Possible cause 1: Incorrect vertical distance between the grate units because of worn supporting rollers.
Remedy: Insert thicker intermediates under the plummer blocks, or, if necessary, replace the entire supporting roller arrangement.

Trouble Shooting Irregularity Blow through of air beside the grate


Possible cause : Defective sealing plates at grates and frames caused by thermal impacts or skew running frames. Remedy: Parts to be replaced or aligned and positioned with the necessary clearance at the frame.

THE (SMIDTH-FULLER) SF CROSS-BAR COOLER

SF Cross Bar Cooler

To Cool the Clinker Stationary Grid Having a self-regulated supply of cooling air
To Convey the Clinker Simple, Cross Bar Conveying System Separate and independent from grate line

Cross Bar Cooler


Cross-Sectional View
M o v a b le C r o s s B a r

Movable Retainer Bracket

Stationary Retainer Bracket

Sealing Profiles

Drive Plate

Stationary Plates

Movable Frame Bearing

Movable Frame Assembly

Stationary Air Grid


No Moving Grate Plates No conveying function and is protected by layer of clinker No interface between air plates and refractory No side seals No need to remove refractory to replace a Plate Grate

RESULT Extended Grate Life & Less Maintenance

Stationary Air Grid


No clinker fall-through No Spillage hopper & Flap valves No under-grate clinker transport system No internal piping No inefficient sealing air required to prevent spillage RESULT Less Maintenance Lower Head Room Requirements Kiln & Preheater Height will be reduced

Independent Clinker Conveying

Wear Components Have No Effect on Cooling Efficiency

Static Clinker Layer above Cross Bars Protects Air


Distribution Plates from Heat & Wear Cross-Bars Effectively Convey, Mix, and Shear Clinker to Maximize Heat Exchange Quick and Simple Replacement of Wear Parts Hydraulic drive for efficient drive Variable Speed for each Module line to Control Red river

Air Distribution Plates With Mechanical Flow Regulators


MFR acts as a variable orifice control the cooling air automatically to compensate the changes in the clinker layer such as temperature, bed depth, and granularity

Constant Air Flow through the Clinker Bed, Independent of Process Conditions MFR Results in Reduced Electrical Power Optimum Air Distribution throughout the Lifetime of the Cooler Supply required air to each plate according to Clinker bed Resistance Operate by principle of Differential pressure between chamber and Grate plate bottom

Air Distribution Plates With Mechanical Flow Regulators

Mechanical Flow Regulators


HIGH BED RESISTANCE
LOW BED RESISTANCE

LOWER VALVE DP

HIGHER VALVE DP

C O N S T A N T

A I R

F L O W

Function of Mechanical Flow Regulators

POLYTRACK Cooler
The POLYTRACK - a unique combination of Horizontally positioned static aeration floor Over floor transporting system
Ideal transverse distribution of the clinker

extremely low construction height

Air Distribution Systems


The air is distributed via the labyrinth construction of the static aeration Grate The Grates are located between the transport tracks

Large boxes integrated into the aeration elements are permanently filled with clinker
This provide autogenously wear protection

No Dust Fall through Grate

Transport tracks
Transport tracks are arranged in line with the direction of clinker conveyance The rows of transport tracks are positioned a certain distance from each other and the aeration elements are located between them The number of transport track rows is determined by the required width of the cooler Every row of tracks runs the entire length of the cooler To convey the clinker, the transport tracks move forward together and then move backward individually

Advantages of New Generation Cooler


Operational Advantages
Stable kiln & cooler performance due to less dust circulation and no blowing of cooling air Less red river tendency due to the Controlled Flow Grate system

Control red river by varying the speed of Individual line of module


Very Good Heat recuperation and high secondary air temperature 1100 o C Will give uniform Flame Less snowman tendency No Fall through of dust Reduction in clinker temperature 80-90 oC

Benefits
Reduction in cooler losses -30-40 Kcal/kg Reduction in power consumption from 4.5 Kwh to 3.5 Kwh /Ton Low maintenance costs due to minimum wear on grate plates and movable parts

Other Benefits
Small overall dimensions due to high specific grate load 70 t/m2 .Day than 40 t/m2.Day for conventional cooler No Spillage hopper and Bottom dust handling equipments Less Head room and reduce the Kiln pier and Preheater height by 3 Meter Reduction in cooling and vent volumes by 30 % and leads to smaller fans Because of Lower exit clinker temperature the Further conveying equipment perform well Because of Lower exit clinker temperature the Cement Grinding mill perform well

Clinker Cooling Efficiency in Various Grate Cooler


Secondary Air Required 0.866 Nm3 /Kg Heat Recovery
1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 675 o C 560 o C 475 o C 390 C
o

Cooling
1500 1400 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 1300

Good Conventional Cooler Air beam Technology Cooler Fully Static Cooler

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.2

Cooling air Nm3 /Kg Clinker

2.4

Clinker Temperature o C

Low Efficiency Cooler

Cooler Comparison
Rotary Cooler Planetary Cooler Grate Cooler Air beam Grate Cooler Stationary Grid Cooler

Efficiency %
Sec.Air Temp oC Tertiary Air Temp Vent air Temp
oC oC oC

55-60
440-700 NA NA 150-300 50-80 1.2-1.5 0.3 160

60-70
700-850 NA NA 120 - 200 30 40 1-1.1 Nil 0.6 - 1.3 142

65-70
800-950 700-750 250-275 100-120 56 23 0.8-1.2 5-7 130

70-75 %
950-1100 750-900 225-250 80-100 45 1.7-1.8 1.5-1.6 56 100

75-80%
11001220 900-1000 200-225 60-80 45 1.5-1.7 0.75-0.95 3.5 4.5 85

Clinker exit Temp Cooler air volume Nm3/Kg

Radiation Loss Kcal/Kg

Air venting Nm3/kg Specific power Kwh / ton Heat Loss in Kcal /kg

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