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Evaluation of Library and Information Centres: CPM/PERT and SWOT Analysis

Dr. Khaisar Muneebulla Khan Mangalore University

SWOT Analysis
Identifying internal strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) and also examining external opportunities (O) and threats (T)

SWOT Analysis
It is a basic, straightforward model that provides direction and serves as a basis for the development of marketing plans. It accomplishes this by assessing an organizations strengths (what an organization can do) and weaknesses (what an organization cannot do) in addition to opportunities (potential favourable conditions for an organization) and threats (potential unfavourable conditions for an organization).

SWOT analysis is an important step in planning and its value is often underestimated. SWOT analysis role is to take the information from the environmental analysis and separate it into internal issues (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Its analysis determines if the information indicates something that will assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives (a strength or opportunity), or if it indicates an obstacle that must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results (weakness or threat).

Creative Use of SWOTs: Generating Strategies By asking and answering each of the following four questions, many times: How can we Use each Strength? How can we Improve each Weakness? How can we Exploit each Opportunity? How can we Mitigate each Threat? Ideally a cross-functional team or a task force that represents a broad range of perspectives should carry out the SWOT analysis. For example, a SWOT team may include persons from all the three levels of management.

Matching and converting Another way of utilizing SWOT is matching and converting. Matching is used to find competitive advantages by matching the strengths to opportunities. Converting is to apply conversion strategies to convert threats or weaknesses into strengths or opportunities. An example of conversion strategy is to find new markets. If the threats or weaknesses cannot be converted a LIC should try to minimize or avoid them.

Use of SWOT Analysis The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. SWOT analysis may be used in any decision-making situation including LICs when a desired end-state (objective) has been defined. Examples include: non-profit organizations, (LICs, Hospitals, Educational institutions, etc.) governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in precrisis planning and preventive crisis management.

S.W.O.T ANALYSIS
STRENGTHS
What do we do well? INTERNAL FOCUS
What are your advantages? What do you do well? What relevant resources do you have? What do other people see as your strengths?

WEAKNESSES
What is wrong now? What could you improve? What do you do badly? What should you avoid?

OPPORTUNITIES
What possibilities exist? EXTERNAL FOCUS
Where are the good opportunities facing you? What are the interesting trends you are aware of? Useful opportunities can come from such things as: Changes in technology Changes in government policy Changes in organizational structure Changes in business priorities?

THREATS
What can go wrong?
What obstacles do you face? What are other companies doing? Is the playing field changing? Is changing technology, trends, directions threatening your position? Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business?

STRENGTHS What do we do well?

What are your advantages? What do you do well? What relevant resources do you have? What do other people see as your
strengths?

WEAKNESSES What is wrong now?

What could you improve? What do you do badly? What should you avoid?

OPPORTUNITIES What possibilities exist?


Where are the good opportunities facing you? What are the interesting trends you are aware of? Useful opportunities can come from such things as: Changes in technology Changes in government policy Changes in organizational structure Changes in business priorities?

THREATS What can go wrong?

What obstacles do you face? What are other companies doing? Is the playing field changing? Is changing technology, trends, directions threatening your position? Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business?

STRENGTHS: (Internal) Collection Knowledgeable staff Library as a pivotal point in the institution Efficient searching; cost-effective searching Well organized information Quality information New technologies

STRENGTHS: (Internal) Outstanding customer service Responds to customer (the organizations staff) Knowledge and understanding of information organization and structure Networking librarians

WEAKNESSES: (Internal)
Perceived gaps in the collection Financial crunch Position in the organizational chart Reports to the wrong supervisor Librarian need to learn a new things Doesnt investigate customers needs Ignorant of what we do, among the staff Librarian makes assumptions Librarian focuses on the wrong problems

THREATS: (External)
The Internet has all the information for free and is convenient; dont have to go to the library Publication costs increases ever The library needs an identity Library staffing levels Administrations lack of understanding of the library and has different priorities Information access and decisionmaking Lack of standardization

OPPORTUNITIES: (External)
Digitization, Internet availability Weekend/evening access; after-hours service Network access; wireless Newsletter articles; editing Open access movement Teaching/Learning Online Library web site, Self-service Desktop delivery of information Any time, any place library Table of contents via email Cooperative purchasing, Market research

SWOT ANALYSIS
I N T E R N A L
College Strengths
A distinctive competence? Adequate financial resources? Good contacts/relations Good competitive skills? Special expertise? An acknowledge academic leader? Innovative programs/services? Good overall reputation?

SWOT ANALYSIS
College Weaknesses

I N T E R N A L

No clear strategic direction A deteriorating competitive position? Lack of managerial depth and talent? Internal operating problems and Vulnerable to competitive pressures? Competitive disadvantages? Unable to finance needed changes in strategy?

SWOT ANALYSIS
E X T E R N A L
Opportunities
Enter new markets or segments? Expand services to meet broader range of student needs? Diversity into related services? Fast market growth? Weak competitors?

SWOT ANALYSIS
E X T E R N A L
Threats
Slow market growth? Adverse management policies? Growing competitive pressures? Vulnerability to recession and business cycle? Adverse demographic changes? Other?

CPM/PERT
The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or critical path analysis, is a planning and control techniques that involve the display the of a complex project as a network with one time estimate used for each step in the project. It was developed in the 1950s by the US Navy

The essential technique for using CPM are Listing activities required to complete the project (also known as Work breakdown structure), The time (duration) that each activity will take for completion. Using these values, CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities to the end of the project, and the earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer. This process determines which activities are "critical" (i.e., on the longest path)

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)


PERT deals with the problem of uncertainty in the activity time. It helps to co-ordinate the activities successfully to accomplish the objectives of a project on time. It acts as a effective tool for decision making In pert the activity time usually expressed in calendar weeks.

Advantages
This technique helps management to plan the best possible use of resources to a given goal within the time and cost limitations. It helps management to handle the uncertainties involved in the program. It process for the right action at right time Provides information on existence slack period of activities & what activities are crucial. Provides basis, facts for decision-making. It allows data/information to be presented in a well-organized diagram, network from which both the executor and customer can make joint decisions.

Limitations
The basic difficulty comes in the way of time

estimate for the completion as activities are nonrepetitive type. The technique does not consider resources required at various stages of the project. Use of this technique for active control requires frequent updating, PERT calculations this proves quite a costly affair. When PERT applied properly it helps to cut project cost and reduce time. Coordinate, expedite planning, eliminate slack time. Cut time required for routine decisions, but allow more time for critical decision-makings.

Thank You