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ANALISIS dan PERANCANGAN SISTEM (INFORMASI)

Catur Iswahyudi, S.Kom, S.E


Email:catur@akprind.ac.id Blog:catur.dosen.akprind.ac.id
Department of Informatics Engineering Institute of Science and Technology AKPRIND

Gambaran Umum
Tujuan :

Kompetensi :

Agar mahasiswa mengerti dan mampu menggunakan teknik-teknik serta perangkat untuk analisis, perancangan, dan pemodelan sistem.
Mampu mengimplementasikan Analisis & Perancangan Sistem menggunakan alat bantu perangkat lunak S1 Sistem Informasi (TIFS 1407) Prakt. Analisis & Perancangan Sistem Easy CASE Microsoft Access Microsoft Visio Microsoft Project

Prasyarat :

Penunjang : Tools :

MATERI
1. Pendahuluan : Kontrak Pembelajaran, RPP 2. Konsep Dasar Sistem 3. Analisis Sistem 4. Siklus Hidup Sistem 5. Perancangan Sistem Secara Umum 6. Pendekatan Perancangan Terstruktur 7. Flowchart 8. Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Output dan Input) 9. Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Basisdata) 10.Pemodelan Sistem (DFD) 11.Pengujian dan Jaminan Kualitas Sistem 12.Manajemen pengembangan sistem 13. Study Kasus

PUSTAKA
Kenneth E. Kendall dan Julie E. Kendall, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, 2011 (printed only) Gary B. Shelly dan Harry J. Rosenblatt, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Course Technology, 2010 (ebook available) Arthur M. Langer, Analysis and Design of Information Systems 3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008 (ebook available) Jeffrey L. Whitten dan Lonnie D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and Design Methods 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007 (ebook available)

Administratif
Penilaian :
Tugas UTS UAS Kehadiran : : : : 50 20 20 10 % % % %

Syarat ikut UAS, kehadiran min. 75% dari kehadiran dosen (0,75x14=10,5)
Dasar :
Surat Edaran no. 231/Rek/II/2011

Jumlah Ijin maks 4 kali

Penilaian Acuan Patokan


Skor Nilai Akhir :
Dasar :
SK No. 073/Skep/Rek/2008, tanggal 20 Peb 2008

NA = 0,5*Tugas+0,2*UTS+0,2*UAS+0,1*Hadir

A NA = 80 100 B NA = 60 79 C NA = 40 59 D NA = 20 39 E NA = 0 - 19

Strategi Perkuliahan
Kuliah tatap muka (40%)

Diskusi dan tugas (60%)

Mengantarkan pokok bahasan dan menjelaskan isi dari sub pokok bahasan secara berurutan.
Pendalaman materi berupa latihan soal akan dilakukan pada pertemuan tertentu, untuk dikerjakan secara individu dan/atau berkelompok serta dipecahkan bersama-sama kelompoknya. Tugas diberikan 4 kali dalam satu semester; 2 sebelum UTS dan 2 sebelum UAS Quiz (optional) dilakukan 1 kali dalam satu semester; dengan tidak terjadwal

Setiap bahan bacaan yang dijadikan materi pada setiap tatap muka harus sudah dibaca terlebih dahulu sebelum mengikuti perkuliahan agar mahasiswa lebih mudah mengikuti acara perkuliahan Mahasiswa WAJIB mengerjakan tugas-tugas (latihan soal) yang akan diberikan setelah acara perkuliahan

Download materi
Staff site:
elista.akprind.ac.id/staff/catur/APSI

Update setiap hari KAMIS (cek untuk update materi dan tugas)

Kalender Akademik
Kuliah : 19 Sept 2011 6 Jan 2012 UTS : 7 18 Nopember 2011 Pengganti : 9 11 Jan 2012 UAS : 16 Jan 27 Feb 2012

How to get A grade ?


Attend classes regularly. On time. Listen and train to pay attention. Make sure you get all missed assignments (by contacting the lecture or another student) Take advantage of extra credit opportunities when offered. Care about your grades and are willing to work to improve yourself Attentive in class. Don't talk, read, or stare out windows. Turn your mobile phone off ! In other words, You are polite and respectful, even if you get a little bored See your lecture before or after class or during office hours about grades, comments on your papers, and upcoming tests. End up at your lecture's office door at least once during the semester Turn in assignments that look neat and sharp. Take the time to produce a final product that looks good, and reflects of a care and pride in your work Plus : english reading capability

Any questions ?

Lets start our programme


Ask these following questions :

GO What is IS ? What does SDLC means ? GO What is iceberg problem ? GO Who are Systems Analysts ? GO What are Technology Drivers for Todays GO Information Systems ?

IS and IT
A system is a group of interrelated components that function together to achieve a desired result. An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization. Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and 1-13 voice networks).

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Types of Information Systems


A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data about business transactions. A management information system (MIS) is an information system that provides for management-oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization.

A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that either helps to identify decision making opportunities or provides information to help make decisions.
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Types of Information Systems (cont.)


An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of non-experts. A communications and collaboration system is an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate. An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers.

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Back

Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)


Project Planning System Analysis System Design Construction/Implementation Integration and Testing Installation Operation & Maintenance
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SDLC Phases
Project Planning
Put project in context Small part of a much larger system? New system or modify old? Define user requirements Analyze tasks Develop specifications Logical design Physical design

System Analysis

System Design - Define the system to be built


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SDLC Phases (continued)


Construction
Write (or buy) the code Unit testing, system testing, acceptance testing Testing, training, conversion Put into production

Integration and Testing Installation Operations & Maintenance


Fix bugs, add facilities

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Analisis Sistem Studi Kelayakan Analisis Kebutuhan

Kebutuhan Sistem Desain Sistem

Perubahan lingkup / kebutuhan

Perancangan konseptual Perancangan fisik

Desain Sistem

Kesalahan atau masalah yang tak memungkinkan implementasi dilaksanakan

Implementasi Sistem Pemrograman dan Pengujian Konversi

Sistem Siap Beroperasi Mandiri

Implementasi kurang lengkap / ada permintaan baru


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Operasi dan Pemeliharaan

Analisis Sistem

Desain Sistem Perancangan Konseptual Evaluasi Alternatif Rancangan Penyiapan Spesifikasi Rancangan Penyiapan Laporan Rancangan Sistem Konseptual

Perancangan Fisik Rancangan Keluaran dan Masukan Rancangan Platform Rancangan Antarmuka Pemakai & Sistem Rancangan Basis data Rancangan Modul Rancangan Kontrol

Dokumentasi

Rencana Pengujian

Rencana Konversi

Implementasi Sistem

Operasi dan Pemeliharaan

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The Classic Waterfall Methodology


STAGES END PRODUCTS

Planning/definition Study/analysis
Design Programming Installation Maintenance
Milestone 2 Design solution decision Milestone 4 Production decision

Project proposal report System proposal report Design specifications Program code Testing and installation Postimplementation audit

OPERATIONS
Milestone 1 Project initiation Year 1 Milestone 3 Design specification sign-off

Year 2

3-8 year lifespan

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Difficulties in Software Development


Sotware quality: whether the software fits for purpose, satisfies all user requirements. Example failures

It might work, but dreadful to use (user)


It is pretty, but does not do anything useful (user) Users and owners may not know how to ask for what they really want, e.g. We built what they said they wanted (developer)

Budget and time constraints often conflict with doing the job properly, e.g. There was not enough time to do it any better (developer)
Difficulties for the possession of blended skills, e.g. Do not blame me, I never done object-oriented analysis before (developer)

Software Development Process


Subdividing the process of software development into different phases Ease of management to produce appropriate quality standard and to stay within the allocated budgest

Help to identify and allocate developers skills appropriately, and thus improve the quality of the task completion Known as project life cycle model

Difficulties in Software Development


Productivity: the progress of the project, and the resources (including time and money) that it consumes along the way (much related to project management) Example failures
A system that is promised but not delivered (user) It is no use delivering now, we need it last April (owner) Projects that overspend their budget (owner) Requirements drift, e.g. user changes their minds frequently(develper) Implementation not feasible, e.g. we said it was impossible, How to overcome them? but no-one listened (developer)

Project Life Cycle


Two important precursor phases are
Strategic Information Systems Planning Business Modelling
Dont blindly follow the path to automation. The very first question is whether or not you even need a computer system...

Focus on organisation needs They are not computational Universially accepted for commercially oriented computer system development

Generic Life Cycle Models


The Waterfall Model Prototyping

Iterative and Incremental Development


The Unified Process Life Cycle

Waterfall Life Cycle


System System Engineering Engineering Requirements Analysis Analy sis

Requirements specification Functional specification Acceptance test specifications Unit test report Sub-system test report System test report Acceptance test report Completed system
Testing Code

Design Design

Construction

Software architecture specification System test specification Design specification Sub-system test specification Unit test specification

Installation Code

Change requests Change request report

Maintenance Maintenance

Waterfall Life Cycle


The traditional life cycle (TLC) for information systems development.

So called because of the difficulty of returning to an earlier phase.


The drawback of the waterfall model is the difficulty of accommodating change after the process is underway

TLC with Iteration


System System Engineering Engineering

The cost of this form of iteration increases as the project progresses making it impractical and not effective

Requirements Analy sis Design Design

Construction

Code Testing

Code Installation

Maintenance Maintenance

Problems with TLC


Real projects rarely follow such a simple sequential life cycle
Lapsed time between systems engineering and the final installation is long

Iterations are almost inevitable in real projects but are expensive & problematic with the TLC
Unresponsive to changes during project as iteration is difficult

Therefore, this model is only appropriate when the requirements are well-understood

Strengths of TLC
Provide a very structured way to system development

Tasks in phases may be assigned to specialized teams.


Project progress evaluated at the end of each phase, and assessment made as to whether the project should proceed

Prototyping Life Cycle


Not intended to deliver the final working system Quickly built up to explore some aspects of the system May be used as part of other iterative life cycle
Initial analys is Define objectives

Specify

Prototyping com pleted

Evaluate

Cons truct

Prototyping Advantages
Early demonstrations of system functionality help identify any misunderstandings between developer and client Client requirements that have been missed are identified Difficulties in the interface can be identified The feasibility and usefulness of the system can be tested, even though, by its very nature, the prototype is incomplete

Prototyping Problems:
The client may perceive the prototype as part of the final system The prototype may divert attention from functional to solely interface issues Prototyping requires significant user involvement

Managing the prototyping life cycle requires careful decision making

Incremental Development
Initial requirements gathering and project planning Further planning based on user comments Planning Risk analysis Risk analysis based on initial requirements Risk analysis based on user reaction to plan Go, no-go decision Risk assessment Progress towards final system Develop first increment Develop next increment

User evaluation of increments

User evaluation

Software development

The Spiral Model (Boehm, 1988)

Incremental Development
Iterative problem solving: repeats activities, each can be viewed as a mini-project Incremental delivery, either external or internal release New release = new functionality + (improved) previous release Several approaches to structuring iterations
Define and implement the key system functions

Focus on one subsystem at a time


Define by complexity or risk of certain components

Unified Process Life Cycle

The Unified Process System Development Life Cycle

Unified Process Life Cycle

Unified Process Life Cycle


Captures many elements of best practice

The phases are:


Inception is concerned with determining the scope and purpose of the project; Elaboration focuses requirements capture and determining the structure of the system; Construction's main aim is to build the software system; Transition deals with product installation and rollout.

Choose Appropriate Life Cycle


TCL is highly predictive

Prototyping, Spiral and UP life cycle models are highly adaptive

Predictive versus adaptive approaches to the SDLC

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Problem Biaya (Kasus Gunung Es)

Analisis, Desain, Implementasi, & Konversi

Pemeliharaan

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Distribusi Usaha Pengembangan Sistem


Analisis Sistem 20% Desain Sistem 15% Pengkodean 20%
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Pengujian 45%

Problem Kesalahpahaman

(a) Kebutuhan pemakai menurut analis sistem saat wawancara

(b) Kebutuhan pemakai yang cukup direalisasikan menurut analis sistem

(c) Pemrogram melakukan penyederhanaan

(d) Sistem yang sebenarnya diinginkan oleh pemakai

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Back

System Designers and System Builders


System designer a technical specialist who translates system users business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users requirements. System builders a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.

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Systems Analysts
Systems analyst a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business. A programmer/analyst includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst. A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design.
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The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver


By "Problems" that need solving, we mean:
Problems, either real or anticipated, that

require corrective action


Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaints

Directives to change a situation


regardless of whether anyone has
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complained about the current situation

Where Do Systems Analysts Work?

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Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst


Working knowledge of information technology Computer programming experience and expertise

General business knowledge


General problem-solving skills Good interpersonal communication skills Good interpersonal relations skills Flexibility and adaptability Character and ethics
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The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator

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The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics


1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with other peoples computer work.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Thou shalt not snoop around in other peoples computer files. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. 7. Thou shalt not use other peoples computer resources without authorization or proper compensation. 8. Thou shalt not appropriate other peoples intellectual output. 9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. 10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow human
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Back

Source: Computer Ethics Institute

Technology Drivers for Todays Information Systems


Networks and the Internet Mobile and Wireless Technologies Object Technologies Collaborative Technologies Enterprise Applications

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Networks and the Internet


Networks include mainframe time-sharing systems, network servers, and a variety of desktop, laptop, and handheld client computers. The most pervasive networking technologies are based on the Internet.
XHTML and XML Scripting languages Web-specific programming languages Intranets Extranets Portals Web services

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Mobile and Wireless Technologies


Some mobile and wireless technologies
PDAs Smart phones Bluetooth Wireless networking

Impact on information systems


Wireless connectivity must be assumed Limitations of mobile devices and screen sizes must be accommodated
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Object Technologies
Object technology a software technology that defines a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into objects).
Objects are reusable Objects are extensible Object-oriented programming languages include C++, Java, Smalltalk, and .NET

Object-oriented analysis and design a collection of tools and techniques for systems development that will utilize object technologies to construct a system and its software. Agile development a system development strategy in which system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety of tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand.
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Collaborative Technologies
Collaborate technologies are those that enhance interpersonal communications and teamwork.
E-mail Instant messaging Groupware Work flow

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Enterprise Applications
Virtually all organizations require a core set of enterprise applications
Financial mgmt, human resources, sales, etc. Frequently purchased Frequently need to have custom elements added

Systems Integration - the process of building a unified information system out of diverse components of purchases software, custom-built software, hardware, and networking.
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Enterprise Applications

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Enterprise Application Integration

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Thats it for today.


Next chapter : Konsep Dasar Sistem Tugas : Buat kelompok (maks 5 mhs/klp) Membuat ringkasan tentang Sistem dan Sistem Analis Dalam bentuk PPT (maks. 10 slide) Presentasikan minggu depan (10 mnt/klp)