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BIOMOLEKUL

(Dr. I Dewa Ayu Susilawati, drg. M. Kes)

Setelah mempelajari bab ini, anda diharapkan mampu: 1. Menjelaskan jenis, struktur, sifat & fungsi biomolekul yang menyusun tubuh manusia 2. Menjelaskan jenis & sifat ikatan kimia pada biomolekul

BIOMOLEKUL
(Molekul Kehidupan)

Kehidupan: hasil kumulatif dari interaksi senyawa-senyawa kimia yg menyusun selsel suatu organisme hidup Organisme hidup bila diuraikan, terdiri dari senyawa-senyawa kimia = biomolekul Biomolekul = senyawa penyusun kehidupan

Atom
Molekul terdiri dari atom/unsur * Atom: unit terkecil materi Terdiri dari: inti: neutron (tidak bermuatan) & proton (bermuatan positif) kulit : orbit elektron (bermuatan negatif) * Unsur: substansi mengandung satu jenis atom

STRUKTUR ATOM

UNSUR-UNSUR YANG MENYUSUN TUBUH MANUSIA


SIMBOL
O C H N Ca P K S Na Cl Mg

UNSUR
Oksigen Karbon Hidrogen Nitrogen Kalsium Fosfor Kalium Sulfur Natrium Klorin Magnesium

NOMER ATOM
8 6 1 7 20 15 19 16 11 17 12

PERSEN BERAT
65,0 18,5 9,5 3.3 1,5 1,0 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,2 0,1

Unsur unsur kelumit (kurang dari 0,01%): Boron (B), Kromium (Cr), Kobalt (Co), Tembaga (Kuprum, Cu), Fluorin (F), Iodin (I), Besi (Fe), Mangaan (Mg), Molibdenum (Mo), Selenium (Se), Silikon (Si), Timah (Sn), Vanadium (V) dan Seng (Zn)

Reaksi antar atom Ikatan Kimia


* Adalah tarik menarik antara atom atau molekul yg memungkinkannya membentuk senyawa kimia. * Tarik menarik disebabkan oleh: - Kekuatan elektromagnetik - Muatan berlawanan - Neklei-elektron - Kutub-kutub (dipole-dipole) * Kekuatan ikatan - Ikatan kuat: ikatan kovalen, ikatan ion - Ikatan Lemah : interaksi dipole, ikatan hidrogen, ikatan Van Der Waals

Ikatan ion

Ikatan kovalen
Atom membentuk molekul dg cara berbagi elektron

Ikatan kovalen non polar


* Atom-atom yg membentuk ikatan kovalen berbagi elektron secara merata karena memiliki keelektronegatifan sama atau hampir sama * Keelektronegatifan: kemampuan inti atom untuk menarik elektronnya * Misal ikatan C-C; C-H; H-H

Ikatan kovalen polar


* Jika salah satu atom lebih elektronegatif, elektron tidak terbagi secara merata, tetapi lbh tertarik ke salah satu inti atom kutub-kutub (+ atau -) * Contoh: C-O; C-N; O-H; N-H

van der Waals forces: dipole-dipole interactions

Ikatan Hidrogen

Ikatan hidrogen pada molekul Air

Makromolekul= polimer
* Polimer karena tersusun oleh banyak atom, maka BM nya besar > 100.000 dalton makromolekul * Empat kelompok biomolekul utama: masingmasing mempunyai monomer karakteristik
Monomer Asam lemak Monosakarida Asam amino nukleotida Polimer Diasilgliserol, triasilgliserol polisakarida Polipeptida, protein Polinukleotida (RNA, DNA)

PROTEIN
FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE

Protein function in humans (dynamic & structural function)


1. Enzymatic catalysis 2. Transport & storage e.g. transferrin, ferritin, hemoglobin, etc 3. Coordination motion, contractile e.g. actin, myosin, etc 4. Mechanical support, structural proteins e.g. collagen, elastin, etc 5. Immune response e.g. immunoglobulin, interferon, complements, cytokines, etc 6. Hormones e.g. insulin, somatotropin, thyrotropin, etc 7. Receptors 8. Control gen transcription & regulation e.g histone, NFkB, robosomal protein, etc

Protein proteos the first Play crucial roles in virtually all biological processes
Proteins are organic compounds made of amino acids (polymers of -amino acids) Kinds of amino acids: 20 Amount of amino acids > 50

AMINO ACIDS
Amino acids are molecules containing an amine group, a carboxylic acid group and one of the twenty R-groups.

The amino acids in a polymer chain are joined together by the peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues

Peptide bond A peptide bond is a chemical bond formed between two molecule when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, thereby releasing a molecule of wate (H2O).

Amino acids symbol

One-letter symbol A B C D E F G H I K L M N P Q R S T U* V W X** Y Z

Three-letter symbol Ala Asx Cys Asp Glu Phe Gly His Ile Lys Leu Met Asn Pro Gln Arg Ser Thr Sec Val Trp Xaa Tyr Glx

Amino acid alanine aspartic acid or asparagine cysteine aspartic acid glutamic acid phenylalanine glycine histidine isoleucine lysine leucine methionine asparagine proline glutamine arginine serine threonine selenocysteine valine tryptophan unknown or 'other' amino acid tyrosine glutamic acid or glutamine

Ser-Thr : dipeptide Asp-Glu-Phe : threepeptide Phe-Gly-His-Thr : tetrapeptide < 10 aa : olygopeptide < 50 aa : polypeptide > 50 aa : protein

Essential Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine

Nonessential Alanine Asparagine Aspartic Acid Cysteine*

Essential amino acids : human body cannot synthesize them from other compounds, so they must be obtained from food

Phenylalanine
Threonine Tryptophan Valine

Glutamic Acid
Glutamine* Glycine* Proline* Serine* Tyrosine* Arginine* Histidine

Protein Structure Hierarchy

C terminal

N terminal

Tertiary structure

Quaternary structure

A hemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains Each of the globins is folded into a secondary and tertiary structure. Then, all four are put together into the hemoglobin molecule's quaternary structure

LIPID
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

LIPID
Penyebab tidak larut dlm air karena rantai hidrokarbon alifatik panjang atau cincin benzena yang bersifat non polar.

Adalah kelompok senyawa organik berlemak atau berminyak yang tidak larut dalam air, dapat diekstrak dari sel atau jaringan dengan pelarut non polar seperti kloroform atau eter. Jenis lipid utama manusia: asam lemak, trigliserid (triasil gliserol), fosfolipid, kolesterol, kolesterol ester

Lipids are a broad group of naturally occurring molecules which includes fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others. The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, and as important signaling

Macam-macam lipid

* Penyusun utama lipid: asam lemak * Asam lemak: asam karboksilat C > 4

Asam Karboksilat

Asam Lemak : fatty acids

Asam Lemak Jenuh (saturated): tak ada ikatan rangkap


Asam lemak tak jenuh (unsaturated): ada ikatan rangkap

Trigliserid (Triasilgliserol): TG
Struktur dasar TG : 1 gliserol + 3 asam lemak TG : lipid utama untuk sumber energi

TG :

ester dari gliserol dg 3 asam lemak

fosfolipid
Fosfolipid tdr : - Gliserol - asam lemak - Senyawa fosfat

Phospholipid: phosphatidylcholin

Phospholipid: Phosphatidylinositol (PI)

Phospholipid: phosphatidylserin

Phospholipid cell membrane

Phospholipid pada lipoprotein plasma

KOLESTEROL

Kolesterol: - membran - vitamin D - hormon streroid

NUKLEOTIDA
A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base), a five-carbon sugar, and one to three phosphate groups

NUCLEOTIDE * make up the structural units of RNA and DNA * play central roles in metabolism, they serve as sources of chemical energy: adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), * participate in cellular signaling: cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), * cofactors of enzymatic reactions: coenzyme A (CoA), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)

polinukleotida

Mononucletide ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP, dll Dinucleotide FAD, NAD Polynucleotide DNA, RNA

KARBOHIDRAT
Carbohydrates consist (CH2O)n include sugars, starches, cellulose and many other compounds found in living organisms. - Carbohydrates

- simple sugars or monosaccharides.


- combination of two simple sugars: disaccharide. - Carbohydrates consisting of two to ten simple sugars are called oligosaccharides, larger number are called polysaccharides.

Monosaccharide classifications based on the number of carbons

Number of Carbons 4 5

Category Name
Tetrose Pentose

Examples
Erythrose, Threose Arabinose, Ribose, Ribulose, Xylose, Xylulose, Lyxose Allose, Altrose, Fructose, Galactose, Glucose, Gulose, Idose, Mannose, Sorbose, Talose, Tagatose Sedoheptulose, Mannoheptulose

Hexose

Heptose

Disaccharide descriptions and components


Disaccharide Description Component monosaccharides

sucrose

common table sugar

glucose 12 fructose

maltose
trehalose lactose melibiose

product of starch hydrolysis


found in fungi main sugar in milk found in legumes

glucose 14 glucose
glucose 11 glucose galactose 14 glucose galactose 16 glucose

Sugar Alcohols, Amino Sugars, and Uronic Acids

Glucitol or Sorbitol (a sugar alcohol)

Glucosamine (an amino sugar)

Glucuronic acid (a uronic acid)

Polysaccharides are polymers of simple sugars

Many polysaccharides, unlike sugars, are insoluble in water. Dietary fiber includes polysaccharides and oligosaccharides that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine but which are completely or partially fermented by microorganisms in the large intestine.

Amylose molecules consist typically of 200 to 20,000 glucose units which form a helix as a result of the bond angles between the glucose units

Glycogen Glucose is stored as glycogen in animal tissues by the process of glycogenesis. When glucose cannot be stored as glycogen or used immediately for energy, it is converted to fat. Glycogen is a polymer of -D-Glucose. The glucose chains are organized globularly like branches of a tree originating from a pair of molecules of glycogenin, a protein with a molecular weight of 38,000 that acts as a primer at the core of the structure. Glycogen is easily converted back to glucose to provide energy.

homework
1. Bagaimanakan struktur Monoasilgliserol, diasilgliserol? 2. Bagaimanakah struktur ATP, ADP, AMP? 3. Bagaimanakah struktur ester kolesterol