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Integumentary System


It i s t h e l a rg e s t o r g a n co m p o s e d

of all four tissue types. It i s 2 2 s q u a r e f o o t . It i s 1 - 2 m m t h i c k . It w e i g h s 1 0 l b s .

Layers of the Skin

It is the superficial portion of the skin It is composed of epithelial tissue Stratified squamous epithelium 1. Avascular (contains no blood vessels) 2. Four types of cells a) Keratinocytes- produce the protein keratin, which helps protect the skin and underlying tissue from heat, microbes, and chemicals, and lamellar granules, which release a waterproof sealant


which contributes to skin color and absorbs damaging ultraviolet (UV) light c) Langerhans cells- arise from bone marrow and migrate to epidermis; participate in immune response (byprocessing antigens) d) Merkel cells- contact a sensory structure called tactile (Merkel) disc and function in the sensation of touch 3. Five distinct strata (layers) of cells: (from deepest to most superficial layer)
b) Melanocytes- produce the pigment melanin

Layers of the Epidermis

a)Stratum Basale
the deepest single layer of epidermis

merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes and stem cells that divide repeatedly

Cells attached to each other and to basement membrane by desmosomes and hemidesmosomes

When the germinal portion of the epidermis is destroyed, new skin cannot regenerate with a skin graft.



provides strength and flexibility to the skin

intermediate filaments form a strong intercellular mesh-like cytoskeleton and attach to the numerous cell junctions called desmosomes

8 to 10 cell layers are held together by desmosomes.

most numerous cells of the layer are the keratinocytes


characterized by distinctive granules in the keratinocytes


3-5 layers of flat dying cells that show nuclear degeneration

contain darkstaining keratohyalin granules (keratohyalin converts tonofilaments into keratin)

Layers above the stratum granulosum consist of dead keratinocytes. The death of the cells results in two events: thickening of the plasma membrane and disintegration of granules


Types of Granules
Keratohyaline One type of granule contains the protein keratohyaline. Keratohyaline binds the keratin intermediate filaments together forming larger and stronger filaments Glycolipids The other type of granule is a lamellanated granule that contains glycolipids. When these granules disintegrate, the glycolipids they release move into the extracellular spaces of the stratum granulosum and the more superficial epidermal layers. The glycolipids function to waterproof the epidermis.


present only in the finger tips, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet

3-5 layers of dead, clear and thin keratinocytes

contains precursor of keratin



25 to 30 layers of dead, thin, flat keratinocytes

barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals, and bacteria

lamellar granules in this layer make it waterrepellent

where callus, an abnormal thickening of the epidermis, is formed.


This is layer of skin under the epidermis

It is known as the true skin

It is a connective tissue layer composed of collagen and elastic fibers, fibroblasts, macrophages, and fat cells

It contains hair follicles, glands, nerves, and blood vessels


It is composed of two layers: a) Papillary Layer The layer that lies directly beneath the epidermisand connects to it through papillae (finger-like projections) - some papillae contain capillaries that nourish the epidermis - others contain Meissners corpuscles, sensory touch receptors

b) Reticular Layer

dense irregular connective tissue contains interlacing collagen and elastic fibers packed with oil glands, sweat gland ducts, fat and hair follicles provides strength, extensibility and elasticity to skin contains Pacinian corpuscles, sensory receptors for deep pressures.

It is also known as the subcutaneous tissue.

It attaches the skin to underlying bones and muscles and also supplies it with blood vessels and nerves.

It consists mostly of connective tissue and adipose cells.

It is where the bodys stored fat is located.

Accessory Structures of Skin

It d e v e lo p f r o m t h e e m b r y o ni c epidermis. C e ll s sink inward d u ri n g development to form: - Hair - Oil and sweat glands - Nails


Hairs, or pili, are present on most skin surfaces except the palms, palmar surfaces of the digits, soles, and plantar surfaces of the digits. Hair consists of: a) Shaft- the part of hair that protrudes above the surface of the skin b) Root- beneath the surface of the skin c) Follicle- surrounds the root; external and internal root sheath; the base is bulb which contains blood vessels and germinal cell layers

New hairs develop from cell division of the matrix of the bulb.

Hair structures:
a) Arrector


pilismooth muscles in dermis contracts with cold or fear; forms goosebumps as hair is pulled vertically
b) Hair

root plexusdetect hair movement

c) Sebaceous




Glands of the Skin

Specialized exocrine glands found in dermis: a) Sebaceous (oil) glands b) Sudiferous (sweat) glands c) Ceruminous (wax) glands d) Mammary (milk) glands

Sebaceous (Oil) Glands

Sebaceous (oil) glands are usually connected to hair follicles; they are absent in the palms and soles. It produce sebum. - contains cholesterol, proteins, fats, and salts - it moistens hairs - waterproofs and softens the skin - inhibits growth of bacteria and fungi (ringworm) Acne - bacterial inflammation of glands - secretions are stimulated by hormones at puberty

Sudoriferous(Sweat) Glands
Eccrine sweat glands (most areas of skin) - regulate body temperature through evaporation (perspiration) - help eliminate wastes such as urea Apocrine sweat glands (skin of the axilla, pubis, and areolae) - Secretion are more viscous

Ceruminous (Wax) Glands

Ceruminous glands - produce a waxy substance called cerumen - found in the external auditory meatus - barrier for entrance of foreign bodies

Structures of Nails: Tightly packed keratinized cells Nail body visible portion pink due to underlying capillaries free edge appears white Nail root buried under skin layers lunula is white due to thickened stratum basale Eponychium (cuticle) Stratum corneum layer


Functions of the Integumentary System

Guard the bodys physical and b i o c h e m i c a l i n t e g ri t y Ma i nt a i n a co n s t a n t body temperature Provide sensory i nf o r m a ti on about the surrounding environment

Functions of Skin
Protection Physical barrier - Formed by the continuous epithelial membrane (skin) Chemical barrier - Formed by the acidic (low pH) secretions by the oil (sebaceous) glands Immunological barrier - Formed by the presence of cells of the immune system with the skin. These function in immunity and disposal of bacteria and viruses by phagocytosis Temperature regulation blood vessels in the skin can help to hold or release heat maintaining a constant temperature

Functions of Skin

Touch, pressure, vibration, tickle, heat, cold and pain arise in the skin the formation of waste substances (such as sweat and urine) that are removed from the body 400 mL of water/day, small amounts of salt, CO2, ammonia, and urea In the presence of sunlight a sterol (related to cholesterol) is converted to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Vitamin D3 plays an important role in the intestinal absorption of calcium and regulation of phosphate.


Synthesis of Vitamin D

Functions of Hair
prevent heat loss decrease sunburn In areas such as the eyelids, nose and ear canal, hair protects these area from foreign materials Because hair is directly associated with sensory receptors (root hair plexus), hair functions to provide protective sensory information regarding mechanical stimuli.

Processes in the Integumentary System



A. Hemostasis

Epinephrine is released in an attempt to minimize bleeding into the soft tissues


Platelet cells forms and aggregates. It is responsible for clot formation and releasing cytokines.

The objective of this stage is to control bleeding


Healing Process of the Skin

B. Inflammatory

It causes swelling, increase of fluid, perfusion of blood, redness, heat and pain

Host of cells infiltrate the wound site, such as leukocytes and macrophages.

Bacteria are destroyed by leukocytes. Macrophages cleanse the wound of cellular debris.

Healing Process of the Skin




Produces red, bleedy, and shiny tissue in gradual appearances


It consists of fibroblasts, capillaries, and neutrophil


Fibroblasts stimulate the production of collagen which is responsible for tensile strength and structure

Healing Process of the Skin

B. -


Macrophages, fibroblasts, immature collagen, blood vessels and ground substance contract and pull together decreasing the size of wound

Healing Process of the Skin

C. -


Cells migrate from wound margins at the top, sealing the wound It can only occur with the presence of viable-vascular tissue

Healing Process of the Skin


Phase The final phase of the healing, the collagen fibers are reorganized to improve tensile strength.

Healing Process of the Skin

Stem cells divide to produce keratinocytes

As keratinocytes are pushed up towards the surface, they fill with keratin

Keratinization is the replacement of cell contents with the protein keratin. It occurs as cells move to the skin surface over 2-4 weeks

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other hormone-like proteins play a role in epidermal growth.

Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis

Hair Growth
The hair growth cycle consists of a growing stage and a resting stage. a) Growth/Active Stage - The cells of the matrix rapidly undergo mitosis to produce new cells. - The new cells grow, produce keratin, some pickup melanin (in pigmented hair), and then they die. - Depending upon their location in the matrix, the cells become organized into the three regions of the hair. - After a period of growth, which varies among the hairy regions of the body, the hair

Hair Growth
enters the inactive stage. - It lasts up to 2 to 6 years 2) Resting/Inactive Stage - The matrix becomes inactive - The hair usually remains attached in the follicle until the active stage begins again. Then, the old hair is pushed out by the emergence of the new hair - It lasts for three months Old hair falls out as growth stage begins again - Normal hair loss is seventy to one hundred hairs per day

Differences of the Integumentary System

How does the integumentary system of humans differ from other vertebrates and from invertebrates.


Skin of jawless fishes:

- They - Of

have relatively thick skin the several types of epidermal glandular cells, one secretes the protective cuticle
- Multicellular

slime glands secrete large amount of mucous to cover the body surface for protection


Skin of cartilaginous fishes:

- Multilayered and


contains mucus and sensory cells

- The


dermis contains bones in the form of placoid scales called the denticles
- Denticles contain

blood vessels and nerves and is very familiar to vertebrate teeth



Skin of bony fishes: They contain scales

A thin layer of dermal tissue overlaid the superficial epidermis normally covers the scales Because scales are not shed, they grow at the margins and over the lower surface


Their skin are permeable and can be used in gas exchange


Mucus are at help in fighting off bacterial and fungal infection at the surface.



Amphibians are transitional between aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates

Consists of stratified epidermis and a dermis containing mucus and serous glands plus pigmentation cells


The earliest amphibians were covered by dermal bone scales



Their skin reflects their greater commitment to a terrestrial existence


The outer layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum) is thick, lacks glands, and is modified into keratinized scales, scutes, plaques and beaks

The thick keratinized layer resists abrasion, inhibits dehydration and protects like a suit of armor



Over most of the birds body, the epidermis is usually thin and only two or three layers thick

The most prominent part of the epidermis are the feathers (collectively known as plumage)

Feathers are most complex of all derivatives of the vertebrate stratum corneum


Feathers, provides the strong yet lightweight surface



area needed for powered, aerodynamic flight They also serve as insulation, trapping pockets of air to help birds conserve their body heat

The varied patterns, colors, textures, and shapes of feathers help birds to signal their age, sex, social status, and species identity to one another

Some birds have plumage that blends in with their surrounding to provide camouflage, helping these birds escape without notice by their predators


Mammalian skins notable features include:




A variety of epidermal glands than in other vertebrate class

A highly stratified cornified epidermis

And a dermis many times thicker than the epidermis

The prevention of dehydration is one of the evolutionary reasons mammals and other animals have been able to colonize terrestrial environment



Some protozoa have only a plasma membrane for external covering which is structurally and chemically identical to the plasmic membrane of mutlicellular organisms. Plastic membrane has large surface area relative to body volume so that gas exchange and removal of soluble wastes occur by simple diffusion.

Cnidarians like Hydra, has an epidermis that is only few cell layers thick - Other cnidarians like corals have mucous glands that secrete calcium carbonate shell

Tegument, a complex syncytium, is the outer covering of parasites and tapeworms - Its main functions are nutrients ingestion and protection against digestion by host enzymes

Nematodes have epidermis that is one cell thick and secretes a multilayered cuticle

Annelids have epidermis that is one cell thick and secretes a multilayered cuticle

Spiders, insects, lobsters, and shrimps, have bodies covered by an external skeleton, the exoskeleton - Exoskeleton is strong, impermeable, and allows some arthropods to live on land. - The exoskeleton is composed of layers of protein and a tough polysaccharide called chitin, and can be a thick hard armor or a flexible paperthin covering.

Snails, slugs, oysters, and clams are protected by a hard shell made of calcium carbonate, secreted by the mantle, a heavy fold of tissue that surrounds the molluscs internal organs

The integument of the echinoderms consists of thin usually ciliated epidermis and underlying connective tissue dermis containing calcium carbonate. - Below cuticle is layer of ciliated epithelium which extends over spines, pedicellarue, tube feet, and gills.