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KESEHATAN PERKOTAAN ( URBAN HEALTH )

Definition of Health
Health is a state of complete physical,

mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO constitution 1948)

Health is a dynamic complete physical,

mental spiritual and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
(WHO, January 1988)
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Masalah Kesehatan di Perkotaan apa saja menurut Saudara ?


1. 2. 3.

Program Kesehatan Perkotan di Indonesia ?


Di Depkes a. Sudah ada Konsep kota Sehat dengan berbagai pendekatan model teori ? Sangat banyak. Tindak lanjut ? b. Buku- buku yang sudah diterbitkan :
a. Pengantar Kesehatan Perkotaan ? b. Pedoman Penyelenggaran Puskesmas di Perkotaan ?

c. Kota di Indonesia sangat beragam

EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRANSITION
CD : Communicable Disease NCD : Non Communicable Disease
Mortality Rate

NCD ID/CD

Double burden of Disease

Negara berkembang

Infections disease/CD
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Disease are grouped by period of disease. Is it overlap among definitionof chronic and acute disease?
Acute Chronic

CD

Cold Measles Cholera Pneumonia Suicide Homicide Injury Stroke

TB HIV Leprosy

NCD

Cancer CVD DM HT

Occupation Environment Mental problem

Apa Perbedaan Kota dan Desa menurut Saudara ?


1. . 2. . 3.

URBAN Vs. RURAL (Ferdinand Tonnies)


RURAL (Gemeinschaft) URBAN (Gesellschaft)

Community Interaction intimate Cooperation Openness Informal control Less tolerance of deviance Ascribed status Little change

Differences Formal, task specific Self-interest Privacy Formal control Tolerance of deviance
Achieved Rapid change
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DEFINISI KOTA DARI BERBAGAI NEGARA DI DUNIA


SANGAT BERAGAM DASAR Jumlah Penduduk Kepadatan penduduk (jumlah/Km2) Luas Wilayah Mata Pencaharian Penduduk (agraris, dagang, industri, dll) Fungsi Perkembangan (pusat) industri, seni & budaya, pendidikan, rekreasi, pemerintahan, Bisnis, dll.
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SEJARAH KOTA DI DUNIA


EVOLUTION of URBAN AREAS

A. First Urban RevolutionCity states and Urban empire 1. Near East Mesopotamia and Egypt (4000, and 3.300 BC) 2. Indus Region (India and Pakistan): a. City of Harappa and

4. Americas 5. 6. 7.

Civilization (2500 BC) b. Mycehean and Minoan Cities (2000 BC)

8.
9.

3. China along yellow river (2000-1500 BC)

(Mesoamerica about 200 BC) Greece (1800 BCE) Ancient Rome (700500 BCE) Middle Age or Dark Age (500 BCE 1000 CE) Renaissance or Medieval age (Roman) Taurat, Injil, Al Quran document
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DEFINISI KOTA DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SK MENDAGRI RI


LEVEL STATUS KOTA NAMA KEPALA BERDASARKAN SK MENDAGRI

Pusat Tingkat I Tingkat II (Distric)

Nasional Propinsi Kabupaten/ Kota Kecamatan

Ibu kota negara (DKI Gubernur Jakarta) Ibu kota Propinsi Kota/ Kabupaten (85) (325) = 410 Gubernur/ Walikota Walikota/ Bupati

Camat

-Desa -Kelurahan KOTA DESA ( BELUM JELAS )


Desa

-KADES (warga) -Lurah


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HIRARKI ISTILAH KOTA


ISTILAH CONTOH KRITERIA
Frekuensi kegiatan internasional sangat tinggi
Ibukota negara

Mega metropolis/ New York, global city Washington DC, Paris, London, Tokyo, Hongkong, Sydney Metropolitan DKI Jakarta, Bangkok, Singapura, Kuala Lumpur, Hanoi, dll. City/ Kota -Bandung, Surabaya, DIY -Depok, Tangerang,

Ibu kota Propinsi/ Kota


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SEJARAH KOTA DI DUNIA


B. Second Urban
Revolution: the Rise of Modern Cities Urbanization and Industrialization Revolution (Western Europe/ North America from 1760s-1800s Removing of Slum
areas in Paris (1849) and building replacement with extensive system of parks The Health of the Towns Act (1868) England prescribe sanitary standards of housing and closing

The Public Health Act

(1875) of England construction of water and sewer system In Vienna (1856) and in Copenhagen (1865) 1893 Chicagos Worlds Columbian Exposition created aesthetic and efficient urban environment A formal grouping of federal building in Washington D.C. (1900), San Fransisco (1905) and Chicago (1909)
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SEJARAH KOTA DI DUNIA


Improvement of
water and sewer systems and public areas; Prescribing an air shaft to ventilate inside rooms; Heightrestriction regulations First comprehensive zoning ordinance in New York City 1916

Working and living condition in cities System of cities Urban growth in the 20th century

Industrialization and colonial expansion Composation of urban population

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Lulus dari S1 ada kemungkinan menjadi pejabat struktural di kemudian hari ?

Apabila Saudara ditunjuk sebagai pejabat di Dinkes Kota / Kab. Disuruh untuk memegang Kabid / Kasi Kesehatan Perkotaan apa yang Saudara Lakukan ?

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PERENCANAAN

Jangka pendek (1 tahun) Jangka menengah (5-10 tahun) Jangka panjang ( > 10 tahun)

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7 LANGKAH PERENCANAAN
1. Analisa keadaan dan situasi 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
(potret) Perumusan masalah secara spesifik Prioritas masalah Penentuan tujuan Penentuan alternatif pemecahan Prioritas pemecahan Penyusunan kegiatan (POA)
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PRINCIPLE OF MANAGEMENT
Situation analysis Utilizing Planning

Monitoring Controlling Coordinating Evaluating


Inside Information
Outside
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Implementing

THEORIES BLUUM (FACTOR/VARIABLE AFFECT OR INFLUENCE OF STATE DEGREE OF PUBLIC HEALTH)


ENVIRONMENT

GENETIC

STATE DEGREE/LEVEL OF PUBLIC HEALTH

HEALTH SERVICE

HEALTH BEHAVIOR
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LINGKUNGAN
Fisik - Tanah - Air - Udara - Temperatur Non Fisik - Iptek - Politik & Ideologi - Ekonomi - Sosial-Budaya Biologis (Infeksi) Bakteri, virus flagel/mikroorganisme, dll. Kimia logam berat, plastik, Hg, PB, CO, CO2, peptisida, dll. Radiasi (radioaktif)
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Pencemaran Lingkungan

GENETIK

RNA dan DNA

PERILAKU KESEHATAN

POSITIF

Ibadah Olah raga Makan siang dll. Merokok Narkoba Kolesterol Stress, dll.
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NEGATIF

HIRARKI YANKES DI INDONESIA


LEVEL Nasional Propinsi Kabupaten/kota Kecamatan INSTITUSI RS Tipe A RS Tipe B RS Tipe C/D Puskesmas Induk & pembantu Perkotaan dan desa Masyarakat Posyandu, Pos Obat Desa (Bidan Desa), dll. Keluarga, individu Perawatan di rumah

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General problem health in urban community: follow to Bluum theories (1)


1.
Health Behavior: No good behavior a. No exercise b. Food high cholesterol and low fiber from vegetable/fruit c. Smoking d. Free sex e. ect Health Service: the health service no to be equity, accessibility and quality a. Health center b. PCU c. Hospital d. Ministry of health e. Price of drug f. ect Genetic

2.

3.

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General problem health in urban community: follow to Bluum theories (2)


4. Environment
a. Physical : No safety and healthy Water supply system (pollution) Air (pollution) Land (limitation and pollution) Temperature & humudity Housing Building Road injury ect

b. Biological & chemical:


No safety and healthy Agent Chemical Plant Animal Human

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General problem health in urban community: follow to Bluum theories (3)


c. Sosial economic : no accessibility, safety and health Education Job Business Culture Religion Donor agency, NGO, WHO Globalization Ect.

d. Political and role no

support healty city Justice/role/law Party/politician Government policy

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Planning (short, medium and long times)



Vision: Healthy City 2030 Mission : 1. To maintain and improve the quality of health service in urban area 2. To maintain and improve the health behavior in urban area 3. To maintain and improve the quality environment in urban area 4. To develop and research genetic factor in urban area Objectives : 1. To improve the quality of health service in urban area 2. To improve the health behavior in urban area 3. To maintain and improve the quality environment in urban area 4. To develop and research genetic factor in urban area
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Buat Dokumen Perencanaan yang jelas


Visi Misi Program Kegiatan
Tujuan Sasaran Waktu Sumberdaya

Sistem Evaluasi dan Monitoring


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