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Pesquisa Operacional Aplicada Logstica

Prof. Fernando Augusto Silva Marins www.feg.unesp.br/~fmarins fmarins@feg.unesp.br


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Pesquisa Operacional faz diferena no desempenho de organizaes?


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Finalistas do Prmio Edelman

INFORMS 2007

Questes Logsticas (Pesquisa Operacional)

Delta Hardware Stores Problem Statement

San Jose Fresno

Delta Hardware Stores is a regional retailer with warehouses in three cities in California
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Azusa

Each month, Delta restocks its warehouses with its own brand of paint. Delta has its own paint manufacturing plant in Phoenix, Arizona.

San Jose

Fresno

Phoenix Azusa
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Delta Hardware Stores Problem Statement


Although the plants production capacity is sometime inefficient to meet monthly demand, a recent feasibility study commissioned by Delta found that it was not cost effective to expand production capacity at this time.
To meet demand, Delta subcontracts with a national paint manufacturer to produce paint under the Delta label and deliver it (at a higher cost) to any of its three California warehouses.

Delta Hardware Stores Problem Statement


Given that there is to be no expansion of plant capacity, the problem is: To determine a least cost distribution scheme of paint produced at its manufacturing plant and shipments from the subcontractor to meet the demands of its California warehouses.
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Delta Hardware Stores Variable Definition


Decision maker has no control over demand, production capacities, or unit costs. The decision maker is simply being asked: How much paint should be shipped this month (note the time frame) from the plant in Phoenix to San Jose, Fresno, and Asuza and How much extra should be purchased from the subcontractor and sent to each of the three cities to satisfy their orders?
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Decision/Control Variables: X1 : amount of paint shipped this month from Phoenix to San Jose X2 : amount of paint shipped this month from Phoenix to Fresno X3 : amount of paint shipped this month from Phoenix to Azusa X4 : amount of paint subcontracted this month for San Jose X5 : amount of paint subcontracted this month for Fresno X6 : amount of paint subcontracted this month for Azusa
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Network Model
San Jose National Subcontractor Fresno

Azusa
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Phoenix

Mathematical Model
The objective is to minimize the total overall monthly costs of manufacturing, transporting and subcontracting paint,

The constraints are (subject to):


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The Phoenix plant cannot operate beyond its capacity;


The amount ordered from subcontractor cannot exceed a maximum limit; The orders for paint at each warehouse will be fulfilled.

Mathematical Model
To determine the overall costs: The manufacturing cost per 1000 gallons of paint at the plant in Phoenix - (M) The procurement cost per 1000 gallons of paint from National Subcontractor - (C) The respective truckload shipping costs form Phoenix to San Jose, Fresno, and Azusa - (T1, T2, T3) The fixed purchase cost per 1000 gallons from the subcontractor to San Jose, Fresno, and Azusa - (S1, S2, S3)
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Mathematical Model: Objective Function Minimize (M + T1) X1 + (M + T2) X2 + (M + T3) X3 + (C + S1) X4 + (C + S2) X5 + (C + S3) X6

Where: Manufacturing cost at the plant in Phoenix: M Procurement cost from National Subcontractor: C Truckload shipping costs from Phoenix to San Jose, Fresno, and Azusa: T1, T2, T3 Fixed purchase cost from the subcontractor to San Jose, Fresno, and Azusa: S1, S2, S3
X1 : amount of paint shipped this month from Phoenix to San Jose X2 : amount of paint shipped this month from Phoenix to Fresno X3 : amount of paint shipped this month from Phoenix to Azusa X4 : amount of paint subcontracted this month for San Jose X5 : amount of paint subcontracted this month for Fresno X6 : amount of paint subcontracted this month for Azusa
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Mathematical Model: Constraints

To write to constraints, we need to know:


The capacity of the Phoenix plant (Q1) The maximum number of gallons available from the subcontractor (Q2) The respective orders for paint at the warehouses in San Jose, Fresno, and Azusa (R1, R2, R3)

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Mathematical Model: Constraints


The number of truckloads shipped out from Phoenix cannot exceed the plant capacity: X1 + X2 + X3 Q1 The number of thousands of gallons ordered from the subcontrator cannot exceed the order limit: X4 + X5 + X6 Q2

The number of thousands of gallons received at each warehouse equals the total orders of the warehouse: X1 + X4 = R1 X2 + X5 = R2 X3 + X6 = R3
All shipments must be nonnegative and integer: X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 0 X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 integer
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Mathematical Model: Data Collection Orders: R1 = 4000, R2 = 2000, R3 = 5000 (gallons) Capacity: Q1 = 8000, Q2 = 5000 (gallons)

Subcontractor price per 1000 gallons: C = $5000


Cost of production per 1000 gallons: M = $3000

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Mathematical Model: Data Collection

Transportation costs $ per 1000 gallons Subcontractor: S1=$1200; S2=$1400; S3= $1100 Phoenix Plant: T1 = $1050;T2 = $750; T3 = $650

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Delta Hardware Stores


Operations Research Model
Min (3000+1050)X1+(3000+750)X2+(3000+650)X3+(5000+1200)X4+ + (5000+1400)X5+ (5000+1100)X6
Ou

Min 4050 X1 + 3750 X2 + 3650 X3 + 6200 X4 + 6400 X5 + 6100 X6

Subject to:

X1 + X2 + X3 8000 (Plant Capacity) X4 + X5 + X6 5000 (Upper Bound order from subcont.) X1 + X4 = 4000 (Demand in San Jose) X2 + X5 = 2000 (Demand in Fresno) X3 + X6 = 5000 (Demand in Azusa) X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 0 (nonnegativity) X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6 integer

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Delta Hardware Stores Solutions


X1 = 1,000 gallons X2 = 2,000 gallons X3 = 5,000 gallons X4 = 3,000 gallons X5 = 0 X6 = 0 Optimum Total Cost = $48,400
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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS
Carlton Pharmaceuticals supplies drugs and other medical supplies. It has three plants in: Cleveland, Detroit, Greensboro. It has four distribution centers in: Boston, Richmond, Atlanta, St. Louis.

Management at Carlton would like to ship cases of a certain vaccine as economically as possible.
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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS
Data
Unit shipping cost, supply, and demand
To From Cleveland Detroit Greensboro Demand Boston $35 37 40 1100 Richmond 30 40 15 400 Atlanta 40 42 20 750 St. Louis 32 25 28 750 Supply 1200 1000 800

Assumptions

Unit shipping costs are constant. All the shipping occurs simultaneously. The only transportation considered is between sources and destinations. Total supply equals total demand.

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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Network presentation

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Destinations

Sources
Cleveland
S1=1200

D1=1100

Boston

Richmond
D2=400

Detroit
S2=1000

Atlanta
D3=750

Greensboro
S3= 800
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St.Louis
D4=750

CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Linear Programming Model


The structure of the model is:
Minimize Total Shipping Cost

ST [Amount shipped from a source] [Supply at that source] [Amount received at a destination] = [Demand at that destination]

Decision variables
Xij = the number of cases shipped from plant i to warehouse j. where: i=1 (Cleveland), 2 (Detroit), 3 (Greensboro) j=1 (Boston), 2 (Richmond), 3 (Atlanta), 4(St.Louis)
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Supply from Cleveland X11+X12+X13+X14 1200 Supply from Detroit X21+X22+X23+X24 1000 Supply from Greensboro X31+X32+X33+X34 800
X11

The supply constraints


Boston
D1=1100
X31

Cleveland
S1=1200

X12 X13 X14 X22

X21

Richmond
D2=400
X32

Detroit
S2=1000
X23

Atlanta
X33 D3=750

X24

Greensboro
S3= 800
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St.Louis
X34

D4=750

CARLTON PHARMACEUTICAL
The complete mathematical model
Minimize 35X11 + 30X12 + 40X13 + 32X14 + 37X21 + 40X22 + 42X23 + 25X24+ + 40X31+15X32
ST + 20X33 + 38X34

Supply constraints: X11+ X12+ X13+ X14

Total shipment out of a supply node cannot exceed the supply at the node.
X21+ X22+ X23+ X24
X31+ X32+ X33+ X34
1200 1000 800 = 1100 = 400 = 750 = 750

Demand constraints: X11+ X12+ X13+ X14+

X21+

X31

X22+
X23+ X24+

X32
X33 X34

All Xij are nonnegative


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Total shipment received at a destination node, must equal the demand at that node.

CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Spreadsheet

=SUMPRODUCT(B7:E9,B15:E17)

=SUM(B7:E7) Drag to cells G8:G9 =SUM(B7:B9) Drag to cells C11:E11

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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Spreadsheet


MINIMIZE Total Cost

SHIPMENTS
Demands are met Supplies are not exceeded

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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Spreadsheet - solution


CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS
SOLUTION MINIMUM COST 84000
SHIPMENTS (CASES) BOSTON RICHMOND ATLANTA ST. LOUIS 850 350 250 750 50 750 1100 400 750 750 SHIPPED 1200 1000 800

CLEVELAND DETROIT GREENSBORO RECEIVED

INPUT
CLEVELAND DETROIT GREENSBORO DEMAND
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COST (PER CASE) BOSTON RICHMOND ATLANTA ST. 35 30 40 37 40 42 40 15 20 1100 400 750

LOUIS 32 25 28 750

SUPPLY 1200 1000 800

CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Sensitivity Report


Reduced costs
The unit shipment cost between Cleveland and Atlanta must be reduced by at least $5, before it would become economically feasible to utilize it If this route is used, the total cost will increase by $5 for each case shipped between the two cities.
Adjustable Cells Final Reduced Objective Allowable Allowable Cell Name Value Cost Coefficient Increase Decrease $B$7 CLEVELAND BOSTON 850 0 35 2 5 $C$7 CLEVELAND RICHMOND 350 0 30 5 17 $D$7 CLEVELAND ATLANTA 0 5 40 1E+30 5 $E$7 CLEVELAND ST. LOUIS 0 9 32 1E+30 9 $B$8 DETROIT BOSTON 250 0 37 5 2 $C$8 DETROIT RICHMOND 0 8 40 1E+30 8 $D$8 DETROIT ATLANTA 0 5 42 1E+30 5 $E$8 DETROIT ST. LOUIS 750 0 25 9 1E+30 $B$9 GREENSBORO BOSTON 0 20 40 1E+30 20 $C$9 GREENSBORO RICHMOND 50 0 15 17 5 $D$9 GREENSBORO ATLANTA 750 0 20 5 1E+30 $E$9 GREENSBORO ST. LOUIS 0 20 28 1E+30 20
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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Sensitivity Report


Allowable Increase/Decrease This is the range of optimality. The unit shipment cost between Cleveland and Boston may increase up to $2 or decrease up to $5 with no change in the current optimal transportation plan.
Adjustable Cells Final Reduced Objective Allowable Allowable Cell Name Value Cost Coefficient Increase Decrease $B$7 CLEVELAND BOSTON 850 0 35 2 5 $C$7 CLEVELAND RICHMOND 350 0 30 5 17 $D$7 CLEVELAND ATLANTA 0 5 40 1E+30 5 $E$7 CLEVELAND ST. LOUIS 0 9 32 1E+30 9 $B$8 DETROIT BOSTON 250 0 37 5 2 $C$8 DETROIT RICHMOND 0 8 40 1E+30 8 $D$8 DETROIT ATLANTA 0 5 42 1E+30 5 $E$8 DETROIT ST. LOUIS 750 0 25 9 1E+30 $B$9 GREENSBORO BOSTON 0 20 40 1E+30 20 $C$9 GREENSBORO RICHMOND 50 0 15 17 5 $D$9 GREENSBORO ATLANTA 750 0 20 5 1E+30 $E$9 GREENSBORO ST. LOUIS 0 20 28 1E+30 20
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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Sensitivity Report


Shadow prices For the plants, shadow prices convey the cost savings realized for each extra case of vaccine produced. For each additional unit available in Cleveland the total cost reduces by $2.
Constraints Cell $G$7 $G$8 $G$9 $B$11 $C$11 $D$11 $E$11 Name CLEVELAND SHIPPED DETROIT SHIPPED GREENSBORO SHIPPED RECEIVED BOSTON RECEIVED RICHMOND RECEIVED ATLANTA RECEIVED ST. LOUIS Final Shadow Constraint Allowable Allowable Value Price R.H. Side Increase Decrease 1200 -2 1200 250 0 1000 0 1000 1E+30 0 800 -17 800 250 0 1100 37 1100 0 250 400 32 400 0 250 750 37 750 0 250 750 25 750 0 750

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CARLTON PHARMACEUTICALS Sensitivity Report


Constraints Cell $G$7 $G$8 $G$9 $B$11 $C$11 $D$11 $E$11 Name CLEVELAND SHIPPED DETROIT SHIPPED GREENSBORO SHIPPED RECEIVED BOSTON RECEIVED RICHMOND RECEIVED ATLANTA RECEIVED ST. LOUIS Final Shadow Constraint Allowable Allowable Value Price R.H. Side Increase Decrease 1200 -2 1200 250 0 1000 0 1000 1E+30 0 800 -17 800 250 0 1100 37 1100 0 250 400 32 400 0 250 750 37 750 0 250 750 25 750 0 750

Shadow prices
For the warehouses demand, shadow prices represent the cost savings for less cases being demanded. For each one unit decrease in demanded in Richmond, the total cost decreases by $32.

Allowable Increase/Decrease
This is the range of feasibility. The total supply in Cleveland may increase up to $250, but doesnt may decrease up, with no change in the current optimal transportation plan.

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Modifications to the Transportation Problem


Cases may arise that require modifications to the basic model: - Blocked Routes - Minimum shipment - Maximum shipment

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Cases may arise that require modifications to the basic model:


Blocked routes - shipments along certain routes are prohibited Remedies: Assign a large objective coefficient to the route of the form Cij = 1,000,000 Add a constraint to Excel solver of the form Xij = 0 Shipments on a Blocked Route = 0

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Cases may arise that require modifications to the basic model:


Blocked routes - shipments along certain routes are prohibited Remedy: - Do not include the cell representing the route in the Changing cells

Shipments from Greensboro to Cleveland are prohibited

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Only Feasible Routes Included in Changing Cells Cell C9 is NOT Included

Cases may arise that require modifications to the basic model: Minimum shipment - the amount shipped along a certain route must not fall below a pre-specified level. Remedy: Add a constraint to Excel of the form Xij B Maximum shipment - an upper limit is placed on the amount shipped along a certain route. Remedy: Add a constraint to Excel of the form Xij B
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Problema (Desbalanceado) de Max Lucro com possibilidade de estoque remanescente


Uma empresa tem 3 fbricas e 4 clientes, referentes a um determinado produto, e conhece-se os dados abaixo:
Capacidade mensal da Fbrica Custo de produo Cliente Preo de venda

Demanda mensal

produo

($/unidade)

($/unidade)

F1 F2

85 90

50 30

C1 C2

100 80

100 110

F3

75

40

C3
C4

20
40 240

105
125

Total

250

Total

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Problema (Desbalanceado) de Max de Lucro com possibilidade de estoque remanescente


Conhecem-se os custos de se manter o produto em estoque ($/unidade estocada) nas Fbricas 1 e 2: $1 para estocagem na Fbrica 1, $2 para estocagem na Fbrica 2. Sabe-se que a Fbrica 3 no pode ter estoques. Os custos de transporte ($/unidade) so:
Local de Fabricao C1 Locais de Venda C2 C3 C4

F1 F2 F3

43 30 44

57 49 58

33 25 33

60 47 64

Encontrar o programa de distribuio que proporcione lucro mximo. Formule o modelo de PL e aplique o Solver do Excel para 40 40 resolv-lo.

Problema Desafio
Problema (Desbalanceado) de Maximizao de Lucro com possibilidade de multa devido a falta de produto
Uma empresa tem fbricas onde fabrica o mesmo produto. Existem depsitos regionais e os preos pagos pelos consumidores so diferentes em cada caso. Tendo em vista os dados das tabelas a seguir, qual o melhor programa de produo e distribuio? Sabe-se que o Cliente 3 preferencial (tem que ser atendido totalmente). Alm disso, no economicamente vivel entregar o produto da Fbrica A ao Cliente 4.
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Problema (Desbalanceado) de Max Lucro com possibilidade de multa devido a falta de produto
Capacidade mensal da Fbrica Cliente

Multas por falta


Demanda mensal

Preo de venda

produo 80
200 100 100 480

($/unidade)
C1 C2

($/unidade)
90 150 30 32

F1 F2

4 5

F3
F4 Total

C3
C4

*M
2
Total

150
100 490

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*M = valor muito grande, pois C3 preferencial

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Problema (Desbalanceado) de Max Lucro com possibilidade de multa devido a falta de produto
*M = valor muito grande, pois no vivel a entrega
Local de Fabrica o
1 2 3

Locais de Venda C
1

F F
F

3 1
5
7

9 7
8 3

5 4
3 8

*M 6
4
2

F4

Encontrar o programa de distribuio que proporcione lucro mximo. Formule o modelo de PL e aplique o Solver do Excel para resolv-lo.
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Modelo de PO para a Expanso de Centros

de Distribuio
Uma empresa est planejando expandir suas atividades abrindo dois novos CDs, sendo que h trs Locais sob estudo para a instalao destes CDs (Figura 1 adiante). Quatro Clientes devem ter atendidas suas Demandas (Ci): 50, 100, 150 e 200.

As Capacidades de Armazenagem (Aj) em cada local so: 350, 300 e 200. Os Investimentos Iniciais em cada CD so: $50, $75 e $90. Os Custos Unitrios de Operao em cada CD so: $5, $3 e $2. Admita que quaisquer dois locais so suficientes para atender toda a demanda existente, mas o Local 1 s pode atender Clientes 1, 2 e 4; o Local 3 pode atender Clientes 2, 3 e 4; enquanto o Local 2 pode atender todos os Clientes. Os Custos Unitrios de Transporte do CD que pode ser construdo no Local i ao Cliente j (Cij) esto dados na Figura 1 (slide 67). Deseja-se selecionar os locais apropriados para a instalao dos CDs de forma a minimizar o custo total de investimento, operao e distribuio.
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Rede Logstica, com Demandas (Clientes), Capacidades (Armazns) e Custos de Transporte (Armazm-Cliente)
A1=350 C12=9 C21=10 C14=12 C1 = 50 A2 =300 C32=2 C23=11 C3=150 C24=4 C4=200 C34=7 C33=13 A3=200 C2 = 100

C11=13

C22=7

Figura 1

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Variveis de Deciso/Controle:

Xij = Quantidade enviada do CD i ao Cliente j

Li varivel binria, i {1, 2, 3} sendo


1, se o CD i for instalado

Li =
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0, caso contrrio

Modelagem
Funo Objetivo: Minimizar CT = Custo Total de Investimento + Operao + Distribuio CT = 50L1 + 5(X11 + X12 + X14) + 13X11 + 9X12 + 12X14 + 75L2 + 3(X21+X22+X23+X24) + 10X21+7X22+11X23 + 4X24 + 90L3 + 2(X32 + X33 + X34) + 2X32 + 13X33 + 7X34 Cancelando os termos semelhantes, tem-se CT = 50L1 + 75L2 + 90L3 + 18X11 + 14X12 + 17X14 + 13X21+ 10X22+14X23+7X24 + 4X32 + 15X33 + 9X34
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Restries: sujeito a X11 + X12 + X14 350L1 Produo X21 + X22 + X23 + X24 300L2 X32 + X33 + X34 200L3 L1 + L2 + L3 = 2 Instalar 2 CDs X11 + X21 = 50 X12 + X22 + X32 = 100 Demanda X23 + X33 = 150 X14 + X24 + X34 = 200 Xij 0 No - Negatividade Li {0, 1} Integralidade
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