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Classification of Matter

Elements, Compounds, Mixtures

Lesson Objective
Physical and Chemical Changes. Elements Compounds Mixtures

All reaction in Chemistry can be divided into two types of changes: Physical or Chemical. Physical Change: ! new substance is formed. "hese changes are easily reversible or temporary. An example is dissolving salt in water. !ther examples of physical change include: melting, boiling, mixing 2 solids or liquids.

Physical and Chemical Changes

Physical and Chemical Changes


Chemical Change:
A NEW substance is formed. "hese changes are irreversible or permanent. "he new substance formed will have di erent properties compared to its original elements. #E.g. different melting and different chemical reactions from the original substance.$

Physical and Chemical Changes


!ne can recogni%e a chemical change from 2 observations: "he new substance has a di erent appearance, such as different color or different physical state. An example is the electrolysis of water. &eason: Electrolysis of water produces two new substances, 'ydrogen gas and oxygen gas. 'ydrogen and oxygen are both gases but water is a li(uid. ! lot o heat is given out in a chemical changes. Chemical changes are called chemical reactions.

)llustration of chemical changes

An !verview

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures


* single, attached, play play+,

)ntroducing -ittle Miss *Element,


'i. ) am -ittle Miss *Element, ) am /0&E 1021"A CE ) cannot be bro3en down into any simpler substance by means of a chemical reaction4 or electricity44.

*Chemical process refers to chemical reaction or heat **Electricity refers to electrolysis

Elements
5efinition of an element: An element is a pure substance which cannot be split up into two or more simpler substances by chemical means.
Sugar is not an element as it can be broken down into carbon and water.

Elements
ote that an element: Consists of only one 3ind of atom, Cannot be bro3en down into a simpler type of matter by either physical or chemical means Can exist as either atoms #e.g. argon$ or molecules #e.g., nitrogen$.

Examples of elements
Elements are made up of tiny particles Elements can be further classified into two groups:
"s made up o t#o or more atoms that are chemically bonded together $note% these atoms are o the &!ME element''(

"s the smallest particle o an element and has the same chemical properties o the element

'i, ) am from the * oble gas, family and ) wor3 alone

6e same same..

These are elements


Atoms of same element Molecules of same element

Cu
copper element

'e
helium element

'

'
'ydrogen gas element

! ! !

o%one

a
sodium element

An element is made of tiny particles called atoms. The atoms of an element is different from that of another element.

!toms

Elements" !toms
Consists o only one )ind o atom

Microscopic view of the atoms of the element argon #gas phase$.

What is an atom?
Examples of models of atoms:

'
'ydrogen atom

a
1odium atom

Cl
Chlorine atom

Molecules
Very few elements exists as atoms besides elements such as helium and neon.
For example, hydrogen is H2.

Most elements exist as molecules.


O one is O!.

Hydrogen "H2# is a diatomic molecule.

$olecules consisting of a few atoms are called polyatomic molecules.

O one "O!# is a triatomic molecule.

Elements" Molecules
Consists o only one )ind o atom

Microscopic view of the molecules of the element nitrogen #gas phase$.

Examples of molecules #elements$


! ' ' ! ! ! ! 1 1 1

1 1 1

Carbon is an element but made up of a very large molecule #also 3nown as MAC&!M!-EC0-E$ "here are 7 types of carbon molecular structures
8 C9: 8 5iamond 8 ;raphite

Allotropes of Carbon molecule (element)

Chemical &ymbols o Elements


%hemists use symbols to represent elements. For example, O represents oxygen while Fe represents iron.
&lement %alcium %arbon Hydrogen )ron %a % H Fe 'ymbol &lement $ercury (eon 'ilicon 'odium 'ymbol Hg (e 'i (a

Classi ication o Elements * Metals and Non+metals


There are two ma*or groups of elements + metals and non-metals. )ron is a metal. Oxygen is a non,metal. $etals and non,metals are grouped separately on the Periodic Table. There are some elements called metalloids which beha-e li.e both metals and non,metals.

%hat is an element&
An element is a substance that cannot be bro3en down into two or more simpler substances by any chemical means.
+ ,hey are arranged in the Periodic ,able, classi ied as metals and non+metals. + ,hey may consist o atoms o same element or molecules o Non+metals $including the same element. Metals $excluding hydrogen( hydrogen(

Physical Properties metals and non"metals


Metals on<metals &hiny appearance &olids at r.t.p #except mercury$ Malleable, -uctile, 1onorous /igh melting and boiling points 1ood conductors of heat 1ood conductors of electricity -ull appearance ;ases, li(uids or solids at r.t.p #room temp = pressure$ .rittle if solid #general$ 0o# melting and boiling points Poor conductors of heat Poor conductors of electricity #expect carbon and graphite$

'ummarising
Elements

Metals

Non Metals

!toms

!toms

Molecules

)ntroducing -ittle Miss *Compounds,


/arlo#' /ehee''' 2giggles2 " am also a P34E &3.&,!NCE " am made up o a ixed number o t#o or more elements chemically combined.

Compounds
ote that a compound: can be bro3en down into a simpler type of matter #elements$ by chemical means #but not by physical means$, has properties that are different from its component elements, and always contains the same ratio of its component atoms.

What is a compound?
A compound is a substance which is made up of two or more elements chemically combined together.
< Chemical reactions ta3ing place.

>n: )s this a compound?

>n: )s this a compound? >n: )s this a compound?


!

)t only contains one type of element.

)t only contains one type of element.

! )t is not chemically ' combined. ' !

So, what is a compound then?


'

Water

!mmonia gas

Consists o t#o or more elements !nd ,hey are chemically combined together'

Compounds

Microscopic view of the molecules of the compound water #gas phase$. !xygen atoms are red and hydrogen atoms are white.

a*in( compounds from their elements Example% Ma)ing #ater $picture(


ELE E!"S h'dro(en ox'(en (colourless (colourless (as) (as) li(hted splint C# $#%!&

heat, li(ht and explosion

water (colourless li)uid)

Example% Ma)ing #ater $models(


mixture of heat, hydrogen and li(ht oxygen and (ater

explosio n
Water molecul e

+'dro(en molecule

#x'(en molecul e

a*in( compounds from their elements


Example% Ma)ing iron sulphide compound elements "ron 5 sulphur compound heat iron sulphide

5 yello#

heat grey

blac)

Little Miss )Compound* Property +,


" can be represented as a 6chemical ormula7 ,he di erent elements present in a compound are combined in a ixed ratio

1eneral 4ules% < !nly #rite the name of the metallic element irst < 6rite the number o atoms of any element in the compound in subscript $applies to only 2 or more atoms( < *ide7 will always be written at the end of the non metal element &pecial 4ules% 5oes not apply to organic compounds #chapter @A onwards$

Little Miss )Compound* Property +) am formed by atoms of different elements. 'owever, ) do not have the properties as them. Examples a B ClC aCl #s$ #g$ #s$ 'C B !C 'C! #g$ #g$ #l$

Little Miss )Compound* Property +.


Electrolysis $brea)ing do#n o compound by electricity( CMgCl#s$ Mg#s$ BClC#g$ ,hermal -ecomposition $brea)ing do#n o compound by heat( 'g!#s$ 'g#s$ B !C#g$

2ecause of my chemical bonds, ) cannot be bro3en down by physical means. ) can only be bro3en down by chemical reaction or electricity.

'ow do we name compounds? &ule @


A compound made up of two elements has a name that ends in -ide.

&odium chloride D made up of the elements sodium and chlorine 8inc oxide D made up of the elements %inc and oxygen Carbon dioxide D made up of the elements carbon and oxygen

'ow do we name compounds? &ule C


A compound that contains hydroxide ions , OH+ "a negati-ely charged ion made up of oxygen and hydrogen# is named a hydroxide.

Potassium hydroxide D contains potassium ions and hydroxide ions

'ow do we name compounds? &ule 7


A compound that contains a negati-ely charged polyatomic ion containing oxygen usually has a name ending in ate.

Copper$""( sulphate D contains oxygen atoms in the sulphate ion &odium nitrate D contains oxygen atoms in the nitrate ion

Eixed Composition of Compounds


A compound is made up of different elements chemically combined in a "ixed ratio. For example, water "H2O# is a compound made only by *oining together two atoms of hydrogen to one atom of oxygen. That is, the ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in water is always 2 !.

A compound can be represented by a chemical "ormula. The chemical formula states / the types of atoms "i.e. elements# in the compound, / the ratio of the different atoms in the compound. Types of atoms0 hydrogen, oxygen #atio of H to O 1 202
Copyright F C::9<C:@@ Marshall Cavendish )nternational

Chemical Eormula of a Compound

'ow do we write chemical formula? &ule @


For many compounds that contain both metallic and non,metallic elements, the symbol of the metallic element is written first.

calcium oxide #Ca!$ sodium chloride # aCl$ magnesium carbonate #MgC!7$

'ow do we write chemical formula? &ule C


The number of atoms is written as a subscript, to the right of the atom3s symbol.

water #'C!, not 'C! or C'!$ magnesium carbonate #MgC!7, not MgC!7 or MgC7!$

'ow do we write chemical formula? &ule 7


)t is not necessary to write the subscript 423.

water #'C!, not 'C!@$ calcium oxide #Ca!, not Ca@!@$

'ow do we write chemical formula? &ule G


The oxygen atom is usually written at the end of the formula.

water #'C!, not !'C$ carbon dioxide #C!C, not !CC$ nitric acid #' !7, not !7 '$

'ow do we calculate the number of atoms in a formula?


umber of lead #/b$ atoms H @ umber of nitrogen # $ atoms H@xCHC

Pb$%O&'2
umber of oxygen #!$ atoms H7xCH9

Compounds can be 5ecomposed


Heat can be used to brea. down compounds into elements or simpler compounds. 'uch a chemical reaction is called thermal decomposition.
!xygen

Mercury#))$ oxide

Summari,in(
A compound is made up of t#o or more elements chemically 9oined together A compound has a ixed composition Every compound has a unique chemical ormula A compound has a completely di erent properties from its elements A chemical reaction #decomposition or electrolysis$ is needed to separate the elements in the compound

olecules- Elements or compounds?


A molecule consists of two or more atoms of the same element, or different elements, that are chemically bound together. )t can be a molecule of an element & & & & N N : : & E.g. C, !C, 1A & && )t can be molecule of a compound. / 'C!, C!C, '7 : : : / N / C / /

Thin/ about this0


&!IAJ..

)ntroducing -ittle Mr. *Mixture,


2urp.... ) am messy. ) am formed when two or more substances Koined together physically ##ithout chemical bonds$ ) have the same properties as all the substances

" am his best riend'

A./

ixtures
5efinition of a mixture: A mixture is not a pure substance as it contains a mixture of atoms of molecules which are not chemically combined together.

ixtures
ote that a mixture: consists of t#o or more di erent elements andLor compounds N:, chemically combined. Can be homogeneous or non<homogeneous can be separated into its components by physical means, and often retains many of the properties o its components.

ixtures

Microscopic view of a gaseous mixture containing two elements #argon and nitrogen$ and a compound #water$.

ixtures
Examples of mixtures include muddy water and air. Air is made up of gases such as nitrogen and oxygen mixed together.

-ittle Mr *Mixture,
) do not have a ixed composition of the substances. A Mixture can be: element B element element B compound compound B compound
(Refer to page 59, Fig 4.7)

'e is a *boo<boo., 'e can be separated to its substances by physical methods

A mixture of 0 elements

! mixture o t#o elements, e.g. neon $Ne( and hydrogen $/2(

A mixture of 1 element and 1 compound


! mixture o one element and one compound, e.g. hydrogen $/2( and ammonia $N/;(

A mixture of 0 compounds
! mixture o t#o compounds, e.g. #ater vapour $/2:( and carbon dioxide $C:2(

Allo': What is it??


Mr !lloy

)t is a mixture of metals with other elements Alloy metals are generally stronger and better in physical properties Examples
8 1teel #)ron B Carbon$ 8 1tainless 1teel # ic3el B )ron B Chromium B carbon$ 8 2rass #Copper B Minc$

Nup. "hatOs ME.

Can 'ou differentiate?


Mixture of C elements<Alloy Molecules of an element

Compound

Mixture of element = compound

Mixture of C elements

Conclusion
!n element is a pure substance #hich cannot be split up into t#o or more simpler substances by chemical means. ! compound consist o a ixed number o di erent )inds o atoms chemically combined together. ! mixture is not a pure substance as it contains a mixture o atoms o molecules #hich are not chemically combined together.

&ifference between mixtures and compounds2


Compounds E.g. 6ater 'C! 1eparation Cannot be separated into its

Mixtures E.g. 1alt solution

Can be easily separated into constituents by physical its constituents by physical methods. 1eparation can only methods. be done by chemical methods e.g. 1alt can be obtained or by electricity. from its solution by e.g. 6ater can only be evaporation. 6ater can be separated into 'ydrogen and obtained by simple !xygen by Electrolysis. distillation.

&ifference between mixtures and compounds2 Compounds Mixtures


E.g. 6ater 'C! E.g. 1alt solution Composition "he composition is fixed. "he 'as no fixed
constituents #elements$ in the composition. "he compound are combined in amount of constituents definite amount. in a mixture can vary. e.g. "o form one molecule of water, two atoms of 'ydrogen and one atom of !xygen is needed. e.g. "he amount of salt added into the water to ma3e salt solution can vary and vice versa.

&ifference between mixtures and compounds2Mixtures Compounds


E.g. 6ater 'C!
properties of the compound is different from the properties of its constituents.

E.g. 1alt solution


own properties. )t has the average physical and chemical properties of the constituents that made it up. #Each constituents still retain its own properties$

/roperties "he physical and chemical "he mixture does not have its

e.g. 'ydrogen and !xygen are gases while water is a e.g. "he salt solution still retains li(uid at room temperature its salt taste. and pressure. e.g. 1alt solution does not have a e.g. 6ater has a fixed fixed melting or boiling point, but melting and boiling point. rather over a range of temperature.

&ifference between mixtures and compounds2


Compounds E.g. 6ater 'C! Energy Change
Energy is usually given out or occasionally ta3en in when a compound is formed.

Mixtures E.g. 1alt solution


ormally little or no energy is given out or ta3en in when a mixture is formed.

&ifferences between mixtures and compounds


0augh #hat= " )no# " am a little 6bushy and hairy7 than you< 2giggles 2 /eE stupid<

Mr Messy

-ittle Miss Compound

Comparison between mixtures and compounds


Mixture &eparation >brea)do#n Properties $chemical > physical( Energy Change Mp > .p Compositio n
Components can be separated by physical methods 1ame properties as its components o chemical change ta3es place when a mixture in formed Pariable 5oes not have a fixed composition

Compound
Elements in a compound Cannot be separated by physical methods /roperties are uni(ue and different from its elements A chemical reaction ta3es place when a compound is formed Eixed 'as a fixed composition

Challenge "ime
)s mineral water an element, mixture or compound?

Challenge "ime
Are N!0 an element, mixture or compound?

EQ"&A.
'uman body is made up of CA elements? About RRS our mass is made up of the 9 main elements 8 !xygen #9TS$ 8 Carbon #@AS$ 8 'ydrogen #@:S$ 8 itrogen #7S$ 8 Calcium #@.TS$ 8 /hosphorus #@.TS$

"he End++